Mene ne matakan da Amurka tsarin ilimi?
A USA, jama'a makaranta farawa tsakanin shekaru na 4 kuma 6 da kuma ci gaba har 16 to 18 shekara. Za ka iya aika ma yaranku zuwa pre-makaranta a farkon shekarun. Koyi game da bangarori daban-daban na American tsarin ilimi. Koyi abin da jeri ne da kuma yadda makarantu sanya your yaro.
In the USA, public school starts between the age of 4 and 6 and continues until 16 to 18 years old. You can send also your children to pre-school at an early age. Learn about the different levels of the American education system. Learn what placement is and how schools place your child.
A karkashin Amurka dokar, your children must go to school for a certain number of years between certain ages. A shekaru daban-daban da kuma yawan shekaru dabam daga jihar, zuwa. Za ka iya gano zamanai da kuma yawan shekaru a cikin jihar.
Under US law, your children must go to school for a certain number of years between certain ages. The ages and number of years varies from state to state. You can find out the ages and number of years in your state.
A tsarin ilimi a makarantun gwamnati da Amurka
The education system in US public schools
Farkon yara ilimi
Early childhood education
Farkon ilimi shi ne wani ajali amfani magana game da matasa da yara anã gitta su ilimi. Ko a lokacin da your yaro ne mai baby, yana da muhimmanci a taimaka karanta musu, raira waƙa tare da su da kuma taimaka musu su koyi biyu na farko da harshen da Turanci. Akwai bincike cewa ya nuna yaran da suka yi magana guda biyu ko fiye da harsuna (ne “Billingual”) da karin abũbuwan amfãni fiye da yara da suka yi magana daya kawai harshe. Farkon yara ilimi cibiyoyin da Daycare cibiyoyin suna samuwa ga jarirai ta hanyar yara shekaru hudu ko biyar.
Early education is a term used to talk about young children being exposed to education. Even when your child is a baby, it is important to help read to them, sing with them and help them learn both your first language and English. There is research that shows children who speak two or more languages (are “billingual”) have more advantages than children who speak only one language. Early childhood education centers and daycare centers are available for infants through children age four or five.
Makarantan nasare taimaka yara (zamanai uku da kuma hudu) ci gaba. Wasu makarantu za a fara yara a makarantan nasare a 2 da rabi. Makarantan nasare taimaka musu su kasance a shirye don makaranta a shekaru biyar ko shida. Daya wani zaɓi don makarantan nasare ne ake kira Head Fara. Makarantan nasare-shekaru yara daga low-samun kudin shiga iyalai iya halarci Head Fara shirye-shirye. Head Fara ne a low-cost makarantan nasare gudu da gwamnatin. Zaka iya bincika a Head Fara shirin kusa da kai.
Preschool helps children (ages three and four) develop. Some schools will start children in preschool at 2 and a half. Preschool helps them be ready for school at age five or six. One option for preschool is called Head Start. Preschool-aged children from low-income families can attend Head Start programs. Head Start is a low-cost preschool run by the government. You can search for a Head Start program near you.
Yara yawanci fara 'yan makaranta da kindergarten (K) a shekaru biyar da kuma ci gaba ta hanyar sa biyar ko shida. Sun bar yan makaranta a kusa da shekaru goma ko goma sha. Yara koyi da yawa batutuwa daga daya malami a wata guda aji.
Children usually begin elementary school with kindergarten (K) at age five and continue through grade five or six. They leave elementary school around age ten or eleven. Children learn many subjects from one teacher in a single classroom.
tsakiyar makaranta (kuma kira ƙarami high makaranta)
Middle school (also called junior high school)
Tsakiyar makaranta koyar da dalibai maki shida ta hanyar takwas. Su ne a kusa da shekaru daban-daban goma zuwa 14. Tsakiyar makaranta dalibai yawanci canzawa daga aji zuwa aji. Suna iya samun dama daban-daban da malamai a daya makaranta rana. A karami al'ummomi, yara ba za su canja makarantu je tsakiyar makaranta. Za su ci gaba da tafiya zuwa 'yan makaranta.
Middle school teaches students grades six through eight. They are around ages ten to 14. Middle school students usually switch from classroom to classroom. They may have many different teachers in one school day. In smaller communities, children will not switch schools to go to middle school. They will keep going to elementary school.
Dalibai halarci makarantar sakandare dake da shekaru 14 kuma yawanci 17 ko 18. A azuzuwan ana shirya ta batutuwa. A dalibi iya samun dama malamai a rana daya. Wasu dalibai za su iya daukar m azuzuwan. Wasu dalibai za su iya daukar azuzuwan cewa shirya su domin aiki ko don kwaleji. Manyan makarantu da clubs, ayyuka, wasanni, aikin-binciken shirye-shirye, da sauran ayyuka.
Students attend high school between the ages of 14 and usually 17 or 18. The classes are arranged by subjects. A student may have many teachers in one day. Some students can take advanced classes. Some students can take classes that prepare them for work or for college. High schools have clubs, activities, sports, work-study arrangements, and other activities.
Makaranta jeri a cikin American tsarin ilimi
School placement in the American education system
Makaranta jeri na nufin yankan shawara a cikinsa sa ka dalibi za a sanya. Yana kuma iya nufin inda a makaranta sanya wani dalibi a cikin su sa.
School placement means deciding in which grade your student will be placed. It can also mean where a school places a student within their grade.
Mutane da yawa 'yan gudun hijira dalibai iya rasa makaranta lokacin da suke a sansanin ko tserewa daga kasar. Suna iya zama a daban-daban aji matakan fiye da hankula American dalibi na wannan shekara. Wasu dalibai iya zama a wani high-sa matakin amma kada ku yi magana Turanci tukuna. Wadanda dalibai na iya samun matsala a wuya azuzuwan har su koyi Turanci mafi. Makarantu a Amurka wani lokacin sanya dalibai a daidai maki.
Many refugee students may have missed school while they were in camp or fleeing their country. They may be at different grade levels than a typical American student of the same age. Some students might be at a high-grade level but do not speak English yet. Those students may have trouble in harder classes until they learn English better. Schools in the US sometimes place students in the wrong grades.
Ta yaya za makarantu sanya ta yaro?
How will schools place my child?
Dalibai iya daukar wasu gwaje-gwaje kafin a fara makaranta shekara ko a farkon sosai na makaranta shekara. Da gwaje-gwaje domin a rubuce. Su iya yi ya fara tasawa karanta tambayoyi ga wani dalibi. Shi ne daban-daban ga kowane makaranta gundumar.
Students may take some tests before the start of the school year or at the very beginning of the school year. The tests might be written. They might have an adult read questions to a student. It is different for every school district.
Idan ka yi tunanin yaro da aka sanya a cikin daidai ba sa, za ka iya magana da malamin, babba, ko makaranta ma'aikatan da suka jarraba da kuma sanya your yaro.
If you think your child is placed in the wrong grade, you can talk to the teacher, principal, or the school staff who tested and placed your child.
- Tambayi, "Abin da ya your tattaunawa?"A makaranta iya taimaka ka gane su yanke shawara.
- Bayyana dalilin da ya sa za ka yi tunani da jeri ne ba daidai ba. Sun iya canza jeri idan sun yarda da dalilan.
- Ask, “What was your reasoning?” The school can help you understand their decision.
- Explain why you think the placement is wrong. They may be able to change the placement if they agree with your reasons.
Yaya makaranta hukunci wanda aji matakin na yaro daukan?
How does the school decide which class level my child takes?
Akwai dalilai da yawa da makaranta so a matakin for dalibi. Wadannan su ne na kowa dalilai:
There are many reasons the school chooses a level for a student. These are common reasons:
- Ta yaya da kyau da dalibi ya fahimci Turanci ko da gwajin scores
- Iyaye / mai kula da shawarwari
- Daidaita gwajin scores, kamar yadda ya dace
- Shirye don kammala ayyukan da kalubale
- Student amfani ko dalili
- Malam ko shawara shawarwarin
- Samfurori na dalibi aiki
- How well the student understands English or their test scores
- Parent/guardian recommendations
- Standardized test scores, as appropriate
- Willingness to complete challenging assignments
- Student interest or motivation
- Teacher or counselor recommendation
- Samples of student work
Same sa, daban-daban matakin
Same grade, different level
Tsakiyar da kuma manyan makarantu da azuzuwan da aka sanar a bangarori daban-daban a cikin wannan aji. Wasu masu wuya da kuma wasu ne sauki. Sunayen da darussa wani lokacin bayyana matakin na wahala. The kalmomi canja dangane da makaranta gundumar.
Middle and high schools have classes that are taught at different levels in the same grade. Some are harder and some are easier. The names of the courses sometimes describe the level of difficulty. The words change depending on the school district.
Names for azuzuwan da suke da sauki ko amfani da sauki Turanci matakan:
Names for classes that are easier or use easier English levels:
- Basic basira
- Basic skills
Names for azuzuwan a wani hali matakin domin sa:
Names for classes at a typical level for the grade:
Names for azuzuwan a wata mafi girma, ko ci-gaba matakin:
Names for classes at a higher or advanced level:
- GTE (Hazaka da talented ilimi)
- Advanced jeri (na)
- ibn (International Baccalaureate)
- GTE (Gifted and talented education)
- Advanced placement (AP)
- IB (International Baccalaureate)
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