To taub American kev cai sib txawv
Americans muaj lawv tus kheej kev lis kev cai thiab txoj kev ua tej yam. Nws yuav ruam tag rau cov tuaj tshiab. Qhov no cov ntaub ntawv txog American lub neej thiab kev cai sib txawv yuav pab koj to taub US kab lis kev cai.
Americans have their own customs and way of doing things. It can be confusing for newcomers. This information about American society and cultural differences will help you understand US culture.
Teb Chaws Mis Kas yog ib zaug ib tug colony ntawm teb chaws Aas Kiv. Nws los ua ib tug dawb lub teb chaws nyob rau hauv 1776 tom qab lub American kiv puag ncig. Lwm loj teeb meem tuaj nyob rau hauv lub Civil War, thaum lub sij hawm lub 1860s. Americans nyob rau hauv lub Civil War tiv thaiv txog cov cai, suav nrog cov cai muaj qhev uas raug coj los ntawm teb chaws Africa. Cov qhev tau tso, thiab cov kev cai tau hloov.
The United States was once a colony of Britain. It became a free country in 1776 after the American Revolution. Another big conflict came in the Civil War, during the 1860s. Americans in the Civil War fought about rights, including the right to own slaves who were brought from Africa. The slaves were freed, and the laws were changed.
Ib qho tseem ceeb tshaj plaws rau peb paub txog keeb kwm Asmesliskas thiab kev lis kev cai sib txawv yog tias Americans los ntawm ntau haiv. Tsuas yog Native Americans (kuj hu ua Khab) muaj pog koob yawg koob los ntawm America. Tag nrho lwm cov Americans muaj pog koob yawg koob uas los ntawm lwm yam continents. Muaj ntau ntawm lawv tuaj raws li cov neeg tawg rog.
Another important thing to know about American history and cultural differences is that Americans come from many backgrounds. Only Native Americans (also called Indians) have ancestors from America. All other Americans have ancestors who came from other continents. Many of them came as refugees.
Vim hais tias ntawm no keeb kwm, haiv neeg tej teeb meem yog ib qho tseem ceeb nyob rau hauv American kab lis kev cai. Cov kev cai lij choj hais tias cov neeg yog tag nrho cov tib. Tab sis ib yam ntawm cov tseem ceeb kev cai sib txawv nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws USA no yog hais tias Americans faib rau lawv tus kheej los ntawm haiv neeg. African Americans yeej tsis tau tib lub sij hawm raws li dawb. Muaj ntau uas tsis yog-dawb Americans yog poorer tshaj dawb Americans.
Because of this history, racial issues are important in American culture. The law says people are all the same. But one of the important cultural differences in the USA is that Americans divide themselves by race. African Americans do not always get the same opportunities as whites. Many non-white Americans are poorer than white Americans.
Americans yog zoo siab heev ntawm lawv lub teb chaws. American kab lis kev cai thiab lub neej yog nrhiav tau nyob rau hauv txoj kev ywj pheej, sib npaug zos txoj cai thiab kev tswj hwm. Americans nqi lub tswv yim ntawm dawb hais lus. Qhov no txhais tau tias lawv muaj cai hais dab tsi uas lawv nyiam txog tus thawj tswj hwm. Lawv tawm tsam thaum lub tsoom fwv tsis tej yam uas lawv tsis nyiam.
Americans are very proud of their country. American culture and society is founded on freedom, equal rights and democracy. Americans value the idea of free speech. This means they are allowed to say what they like about the president. They protest when the government does things they do not like.
Kev cai dab qhuas
Txoj kevcai hais tias tsoom fwv yuav tsum tsis ua raws li tej kev ntseeg thiab cov neeg muaj ib txoj cai rau lawv kev cai dab qhuas thiab kev cai sib txawv. Tab sis feem ntau Americans nquam paj nquam nruas Hnub caiv christian. Hais txog 80% ntawm cov neeg Asmeskas hais tias lawv yog Christian, txawm hais tias tsawg tshaj li 40% mus rau lub tsev teev ntuj. Zoo li Islam, Christianity li nram no ib tug Vajtswv. Nws qhia cov thwjtim mus yuav zoo rau lawv cov neeg nyob ze thiab zoo rau lwm tus nrog sib hwm.
The law says the government must not follow any religion and people have a right to their religious and cultural differences. But most Americans celebrate Christian holidays. About 80% of Americans say they are Christian, although fewer than 40% go to church. Like Islam, Christianity follows one God. It tells followers to be kind to their neighbors and to treat others with respect.
Yog hais tias koj ib tug practicing Muslim, koj tham tau nrog koj ua hauj lwm txog koj txoj kev ntseeg thiab nug rau ib qho chaw mus thov Vajtswv thaum lub sij hawm hnub. Ntau lub tsev kawm yuav tau muab ib qhov chaw rau me nyuam kawm ntawv mus thov Vajtswv.
If you a practicing Muslim, you can talk to your employer about your faith and ask for a place to pray during the day. Many schools will also provide a space for students to pray.
Nyiaj so koobtsheej thiab ua koob tsheej nco
Holidays and celebrations
Cov neeg nquam paj nquam nruas hnub caiv los ntawm tau txais ua ke nrog lawv tsev neeg thiab los ntawm kev noj loj noj mov. Qhov loj tshaj hnub caiv tseem Christmas (Hlis ntuj nqeg 25) thiab Independence hnub (Lub Xya hli ntuj 4). Independence hnub no ua koob tsheej nrog foob pob hluav taws thiab Barbecues. Tshiab Xyoo Eve (Hlis ntuj nqeg 31) yog lwm loj ua koob tsheej. Cov neeg nyob mus lig thiab suav cia lub sij hawm kom txog rau thaum lub moos ntaus ib tag hmo. Halloween (Lub kaum hli ntuj 31) lom raws li ib tug los muab ris tsho nyob rau hauv funny khaub ncaws thiab muaj kev lom zem.
People celebrate holidays by getting together with their families and by eating large meals. The biggest holidays are Christmas (December 25) and Independence Day (July 4). Independence Day is celebrated with fireworks and barbecues. New Year’s Eve (December 31) is another big celebration. People stay up late and count down the time until the clock strikes midnight. Halloween (October 31) is celebrated as a day to dress up in funny clothes and have fun.
Birthdays yog qho tseem ceeb heev. Americans nquam paj nquam nruas uas muaj khoom plig, ncuav mog qab zib thiab tog. Cov tsev neeg uas muaj cov me nyuam yaus yuav feem ntau muaj ob tog thiab caw cov neeg nyob ze, kawm ntawv ua ke thiab cov phooj ywg mus noj peb caug birthdays.
Birthdays are very important. Americans celebrate with gifts, cake and parties. Families with young children will often have parties and invite neighbors, classmates and friends to celebrate birthdays.
Lub capitalist economy txhais tau tias cov neeg (tsis tsoom fwv) tus kheej cov lag luam thiab cov kev pab cuam. Healthcare yog ib tug loj ua lag ua luam. Ua liaj ua teb yog ib qho tseem ceeb heev. Muaj ntau teb yog cov loj loj thiab muaj los ntawm cov lag luam.
The capitalist economy means that people (not government) own businesses and services. Healthcare is a big business. Farming is important too. Many farms are big and owned by businesses.
Ua lag ua luam tswv yuav tsis tau los pab lub zej zog, tiam sis muaj ntau cov nyiaj rau lub zos los yog lub teb chaws cov koom haum. Americans pub ib tug ntau ntawm cov nyiaj rau cov koom haum. Muaj ntau pawg ntseeg thiab lub zej zog cov koom haum muab khoom noj khoom haus, tsev nyob, thiab tseem ceeb ua yuav tau nyiaj tsawg tsev neeg.
Business owners are not required to help the community, but many make donations to local or national charities. Americans donate a lot of money to charities. Many churches and community organizations provide food, housing, and essentials to low-income families.
Tab sis American kab lis kev cai yog ib tug neeg ntau. Ib tug ntawm cov kev cai sib txawv tej zaum koj yuav pom tias yog hais tias cov neeg tsis feem ntau yog qhia lawv cov nyiaj nrog lawv tsev neeg txheeb. Tej zaum lawv yuav xaiv los pub los yog pab lawv tsev neeg txheeb neeg los yog cov phooj ywg, tab sis nws tsis yog yuav tsum.
But American culture is more individual. One of the cultural differences you may notice is that people do not usually share their money with their extended family. They may choose to donate or help their extended family members or friends, but it is not expected.
Feem ntau cov Americans muaj peb cov npe: thawj lub npe, nruab nrab lub npe, thiab tsev neeg lub npe (kuj hu ua lub xeem lub npe). Feem ntau cov poj niam coj lawv tus txiv lub xeem lub npe thaum lawv tau sib yuav, txawm hais tias ib co kom lawv tus kheej lub xeem lub npe los yog siv ob qho tib si. Yog hais tias koj muaj ib tug txawv xeem lub npe tshaj koj tus me nyuam, tej zaum koj yuav tsum tau muab pov thawj tias tus me nyuam yog koj tus me nyuam.
Most Americans have three names: first name, middle name, and family name (also called last name). Most women take their husband’s last name when they get married, although some keep their own last name or use both. If you have a different last name than your child, you may be required to show proof that the child is your child.
Cov txwj laus
Cov txwj laus tsis muaj rau tib theem ntawm kev hwm raws li lawv ua nyob rau hauv ntau lwm lub teb chaws. Cov neeg yuav muab ntau kev hwm rau lub tsev kawm ntawv professors, ua lag ua luam cov thawj coj, thiab cov nplua nuj neeg. Qhov no tej zaum yuav yog ib tug nyuaj haum rau cov laus cov tuaj tshiab.
Elders do not have the same level of respect as they do in many other countries. People tend to give more respect to university professors, business leaders, and rich people. This may be a hard adjustment for older newcomers.
Lub sij hawm
Lub tswvyim ntawm lub sij hawm yog nruj, thiab qhov no yog ib tug ntawm cov kev cai sib txawv uas tuaj tshiab zog nrog. Cov neeg teev ib lub sij hawm rau cov hnub txheej xwm. Lawv yuav tawm qho kev tshwm sim thaum ntxov kom paub tseeb tias lawv nyob rau ntawm lub sij hawm mus rau lawv tom ntej no lub sij hawm. Lub sij hawm yog tshwj xeeb tshaj yog ib qho tseem ceeb nyob rau hauv kev ua hauj lwm thiab tsev kawm ntawv.
The concept of time is strict, and this is one of the cultural differences that newcomers struggle with. People set a time for most daily events. They will leave an event early to make sure they are on time to their next appointment. Time is especially important in work and school settings.
lub cev chwv
Tus txiv neej thiab cov poj niam feem ntau co ob txhais tes. Txawm li cas los, nws yog li cas rau ib tug poj niam uas tsis kam tuav nkawd tes los yog kov ib tug txiv neej. Tus txiv neej tsis txhob kov txhua lwm yam ntau heev, tsuas yog tuav tes los yog muaj ib tus ceev puag. Nws yog li cas yog kov lwm tus txiv neej. Cov poj niam yog cov yuav los kov ib leeg, xws li ib tug puag thaum lawv thawj saib ib leeg los yog thaum lawv hais goodbye. Tsev neeg feem ntau kov thiab khawm txhua lwm yam.
Men and women typically shake hands. However, it is okay for a woman to decline to shake hands or to touch a man. Men do not touch each other very often, except for shaking hands or possibly a quick hug. It is okay to touch other men. Women are more likely to touch one another, such as a hug when they first see one another or when they say goodbye. Family members often touch and hug each other.
Kev sib txuas lus
Cov neeg yuav hais tias "Kuv tuaj los" nyob rau hauv lub yav sawv ntxov los yog luag tab sis tsis txhob muab ib tug ntau lub sij hawm mus tos txais lwm tus hauv tsev neeg nyob rau hauv lub yav sawv ntxov. Koj muaj peev xwm tos txais koj co-neeg ua hauj lwm thaum koj nyuam qhuav tuaj txog ntawm kev ua hauj lwm. Cov neeg luag ntxhi thiab hais tias "ua tsaug" rau ib tug ntau.
People may say “hi” in the morning or smile but do not take a lot of time to greet other family members in the morning. You can greet your co-workers when you first arrive at work. People smile and say “thank you” a lot.
Sau ntawv yog siv rau ib qho tseem ceeb thiab official kev sib txuas lus. Yog hais tias koj kos npe rau ib daim ntawm daim ntawv, cov neeg yuav siv sij hawm daim ntawv heev tiag. Raws li txoj cai ntawv cog lus kos npe sau cov ntaub ntawv uas muaj peev xwm raug tswj los ntawm lub tsev hais plaub.
Writing is used for important and official communication. If you sign a piece of paper, people will take the paper very seriously. Legal contracts are signed written documents that can be enforced by the court.
Cov neeg feem ntau noj nrog diav (diav rawg, riam thiab diav) tshwj tsis yog tias lawv muaj noj qhaub cij, hamburgers, los yog vas nthiv zaub mov. Lawv siv lawv tus kheej phaj thiab lub tais rau txhua noj mov es tsis txhob ntawm sib koom ib lub tais los yog phaj. Yog hais tias koj muaj ib tug qhua nyob rau hauv koj lub tsev, koj yuav muab lawv cov zaub mov nyob hauv ib tug nyias muaj nyias ib lub phaj. Yog hais tias koj tsis paub tias khoom noj khoom haus yog communal los yog rau ib tug neeg, koj yuav tau nug.
People mostly eat with silverware (fork, knife and spoon) unless they are eating sandwiches, hamburgers, or fast food. They use their own plate and bowl for each meal instead of sharing one bowl or plate. If you have a guest at your home, you can offer them their food on a separate plate. If you are unsure if food is communal or for one person, you can ask.
Kev Kawm Ntawv
Tag nrho cov me nyuam yuav tsum mus rau lub tsev kawm ntawv los ntawm cov muaj hnub nyoog 5 rau 18. Feem ntau cov xib fwb yog cov poj niam, tab sis ntau tus txiv neej qhia cov me nyuam, heev. Cov tsev kawm ntawv xav kom niam txiv los muab kev koom tes nyob rau hauv lawv cov me nyuam txoj kev kawm ntawv. Qhov no txhais tau tias mus kev sib txoos los yog cov txheej xwm hauv tsev kawm ntawv. Nws txhais tau tias muab me nyuam kawm ntawv lub sij hawm mus ua kom tiav ntawv ua tom tsev, thiab pab lawv kawm. American cov niam txiv kuj pab tau nyob rau hauv lub tsev kawm ntawv raws li kev pab dawb.
All children must go to school from ages 5 to 18. Most teachers are women, but many men teach children, too. Schools expect parents to get involved in their children’s education. This means attending meetings or events at the school. It means giving students time to complete homework, and helping them to learn. American parents also help in the school as volunteers.
Koj cov me nyuam yuav kawm tau mus ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv pab pawg thiab pab ua ke. Lawv yuav kawm txog kom dhau kev ntsuam xyuas rau kev kawm qib siab. Cov me nyuam nyob rau hauv American lub tsev kawm ntawv kawm tau li cas los xav hais tias critically. Xav critically txhais tau tias cov tub kawm ntawv yuav tsum tau nug cov tswv yim. Raws li ib tug tshwm sim, menyuam kawm ntawv tej zaum yuav pib mus nug lawv niam lawv txiv. Qhov no yog tsis yog ib tug kos npe rau ntawm tsis taus. Nws qhia tau hais tias lawv tau kawm ib qho tseem ceeb kev txawj kawm tau ntawv zoo nyob rau hauv tsev kawm ntawv thiab ua hauj lwm.
Your children will learn to work in groups and teams. They will study to pass tests for college. Children in American schools learn how to think critically. Thinking critically means students are expected to question ideas. As a result, students may start to question their parents. This is not a sign of disrespect. It shows they have learned an important skill to succeed in school and work.
Muaj coob tus neeg mus saib tus kws kho mob txhua xyoo daim tshev-ups es cia thaum lawv muaj mob. Cov kws kho mob yog heev hwm.
Many people visit the doctor for yearly check-ups rather than just when they are sick. Doctors are very respected.
Yog hais tias ib tug noj qab haus huv neeg ua hauj lwm yuav tsis nrog koj tham txog koj tsev neeg txoj kev kho mob, tsis tau qhov no raws li ib tug kos npe rau lawv ua txhob txwm. Txoj cai hais tias lawv tsis tau tso cai los sib tham txog tus neeg mob noj qab haus huv nrog rau lwm cov neeg tshwj tsis yog tias tus neeg mob kos npe rau ib daim ntawv muab kev tso cai.
If a health worker will not talk to you about your family member’s medical care, do not take this as a sign they are being rude. The law says they are not allowed to discuss a patient’s health with other people unless the patient signs a form to give permission.
Counselors yuav zoo heev hwm. Nws yog ib yam rau cov neeg Asmeskas mus ntsib ib tug kws pab tswv yim yuav pab tau lawv los ntawm txoj kev tuag ntawm ib tug neeg hauv tsev neeg los yog lwm yam tu siab thiab nyuaj txheej xwm. Yuav luag txhua txhua lub tsev kawm ntawv muaj ib tug kws pab tswv yim los pab me nyuam kawm ntawv ua tau lawv lub hom phiaj, xws li mus kawm ntawv qib siab. Yog hais tias koj tus menyuam xav tau kev pab mus ntsib ib tug kws pab tswv yim, qhov no yuav ua ib tug loj kev pab rau koj tsev neeg thiab tsis yog dab tsi tsis zoo rau koj tsev neeg.
Counselors are very well respected. It is very common for Americans to see a counselor to help them through the death of a family member or other sad and hard events. Almost every school has a counselor to help student’s achieve their goals, such as going to college. If your student needs to see a counselor, this can be a big help for your family and does not mean anything negative for your family.
Kev sib yuav thiab kev sib nrauj
Marriage and divorce
Nyob rau hauv lub US, koj yuav tsuas tau sib yuav rau ib tug neeg. Niam hlob niam yau yog tiv thaiv cov kev cai lij choj. Kev sib nrauj yog ib qho thiab txais nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws United States.
In the US, you can only be married to one person. Polygamy is against the law. Divorce is common and accepted in the United States.
Feem ntau cov neeg ua neej nyob tsuas nrog lawv tam sim ntawd tsev neeg - cov niam txiv thiab cov me nyuam thiab tej zaum yawg. Tsuas yog ib tug me me feem pua ntawm cov tsev neeg nyob rau lawv kwv tij tsev neeg. Lub yog ib yam ntawm cov feem ntau hnov kev cai sib txawv rau cov tuaj tshiab los ntawm ntau tsoos societies.
Most people live only with their immediate family members – parents and children and sometimes grandparents. Only a small percentage of families live with their extended families. The is one of the most noticeable cultural differences for newcomers from more traditional societies.
Tus txiv neej thiab cov poj niam yog ob qho tib si ib qho tseem ceeb mus rau lub tsev neeg. Feem ntau cov txiv neej pab nrog nws tsev neeg nyias muaj nyias haujlwm xws li ua noj ua haus thiab tu thiab kev saib xyuas ntawm cov me nyuam. Tus txiv neej uas ua tej haujlwm no tseem pom raws li nyob rau hauv them nyiaj ntawm lawv cov tsev.
Men and women are both important to the household. Most men help with household chores such as cooking and cleaning and taking care of children. Men who do these chores are still seen as in charge of their homes.
Feem ntau cov tsev neeg muaj ob tug me nyuam. Muaj coob tus neeg them rau xa lawv cov me nyuam mus chaw zov me nyuam. Nws yog tiv thaiv cov kev cai lij choj mus rau tawm cov me nyuam hauv tsev ib leeg tsis muaj kev saib xyuas. Nws kuj tseem txhaum kev cai lij choj uas ntaus los yog lub cev kev qhuab qhia cov me nyuam.
Most families have two children. Many people pay to send their children to daycare. It is against the law to leave children home alone without supervision. It is also against the law to hit or physically discipline children.
Cov poj niam thiab cov ntxhais
Women and girls
Nyob rau hauv lub US, cov txiv neej thiab cov poj niam nyob, ua hauj lwm, thiab mus rau tsev kawm ntawv ua ke. Qhov no yog ib tug ntawm cov biggest kev cai sib txawv thiab haum rau ib txhia tuaj tshiab. Tus txiv neej thiab cov poj niam sib tov ntawm kev xwm txheej heev. Tab sis koj muaj peev xwm thov kom muaj ib tug kws kho mob ntawm tib pw ua niam txiv.
In the US, men and women live, work, and go to school together. This is one of the biggest cultural differences and adjustment for some newcomers. Men and women mix at social events too. But you can request to have a doctor of the same sex.
Cov menyuam ntxhais mus nrog lawv educations cia li zoo li cov tub hluas. American cov tub hluas thiab cov ntxhais yuav pab nrog nyias muaj nyias haujlwm. American cov ntxhais yuav tsis xav kom khiav tsev neeg kom txog thaum lawv yog neeg laus los yog tau sib yuav.
Girls continue with their educations just like boys. American boys and girls both help with chores. American girls are not expected to run households until they are adult or get married.
Nyob rau hauv lub US, cov poj niam thiab cov ntxhais yeej tseem yuav tsum tau mus ua hauj lwm thiab tsev kawm ntawv thaum lawv tshwm.
In the US, women and girls are still expected to go to work and school while they are menstruating.
Cov poj niam feem ntau ua hauj lwm sab nraum lub tsev zoo li cov txiv neej. Feem ntau cov poj niam saib xyuas ntawm lawv cov me nyuam mos nyob rau hauv lawv tus kheej tom qab ib los yog ob lub lis piam. Cov tswv hauj lwm yuav tsum tau muab them lub sij hawm tawm rau ib tug ob peb lub lis piam, tab sis, ces lawv xav tias yuav poj niam rov qab mus ua hauj lwm sai li sai tau.
Women usually work outside the home like men. Most women take care of their babies on their own after one or two weeks. Employers must give unpaid time off for a few weeks, but then they expect women to return to work as soon as possible.
Ua hauj lwm
Ib txhia cov tuaj tshiab hais tias lawv tsis muaj tej kev txawj ntse rau cov American ua hauj lwm. Qhov no yog tsis muaj tseeb. Muaj ntau cov neeg tuaj tshiab hais lus ntau tshaj ib hom lus. Lawv yog cov muaj zog vim hais tias lawv tau dim txom nyem loj heev. Feem ntau cov tuaj tshiab tus nqi kawm. Lawv txaus siab los kawm thiab ua hauj lwm nyuaj. Qhuav tuaj ua ib qho tseem ceeb pab. Thov siv peb kev ua haujlwm los pab koj nrhiav hauj lwm thiab kawm tau ntawv zoo nyob rau ntawm lub chaw ua hauj lwm.
Some newcomers say they do not have any skills for the American workforce. This is not true. Many newcomers speak more than one language. They are strong because they have survived great hardship. Most newcomers value learning. They are willing to study and work hard. Newcomers make important contributions. Please use our work resources to help you find work and succeed at work.