អ៊ីរ៉ាក់: Understanding your students from Iraq and their cultural backgrounds

ភាសាអង់គ្លេសផងដែរទេភាសាអង់គ្លេស

អ្នកអប់រំមនុស្សជាច្រើនបានបង្រៀនសិស្សចម្រុះបានរាយការណ៍ថាពួកគេមិនទទួលបានពផ្ទៃខាងក្រោយវប្បធម៍គ្រប់គ្រាន់នៅលើសិស្សរបស់ខ្លួន. ប្រសិនបើអ្នកកំពុងបង្រៀនសិស្សជនភៀសខ្លួន, វាជាការសំខាន់ដើម្បីឱ្យមានការយល់ដឹងអំពីចំណូលថ្មី’ ប្រវត្តិ. ពខាងក្រោមនេះត្រូវបានន័យដើម្បីផ្តល់នូវទិដ្ឋភាពទូទៅនៃការរំលេចសំខាន់មួយ, ដូច្នេះអ្នកអភិវឌ្ឍយុទ្ធសាស្រ្តក្នុងការបង្រៀនឆ្លើយតបវប្បធម៍ដែលមាននៅក្នុងបទភ្លេងជាមួយសិស្សរបស់អ្នក’ រចនាប័ទ្មរៀនតែមួយគត់.

Many educators teaching diverse students report that they do not receive enough cultural background information on their students. If you are teaching refugee students, it is important to be aware of newcomers’ backgrounds. The information below is meant to provide an overview of key highlights, so you develop culturally responsive teaching strategies that are in tune with your students’ unique learning styles.

Photo by UNHCR/ Z. Soleimani
Photo by UNHCR/ Z. Soleimani
Photo by UNHCR/ Z. Soleimani
Photo by UNHCR/ Z. Soleimani

Iraq Map

Iraq Map

ភាសា

Language

Arabic and some Kurdish

Arabic and some Kurdish

ការបង្រៀននៅក្នុងថ្នាក់រៀន

Teaching in the Classroom

ក្នុងប្រទេសអ៊ីរ៉ាក់, education is free and compulsory until the age of 12. ទោះជាយ៉ាងណា, the danger involved in going to and from school has precipitated a decline in attendance. This has resulted in a general decline in school performance marked by the necessity of most children repeating one grade level.

In Iraq, education is free and compulsory until the age of 12. However, the danger involved in going to and from school has precipitated a decline in attendance. This has resulted in a general decline in school performance marked by the necessity of most children repeating one grade level.

តែអំពី 10% of the total Iraqi refugee youth population is enrolled in school. The UN, Red Crescent, and NGOs such as Save the Children are operating in the region monitoring the situation and have set up care centers with some limited educational opportunities or educational reference services. Students in your classroom are very likely to have experienced interrupted educations and to be several grade levels behind their peers. Girls may well have had less access to education than boys.

Only about 10% of the total Iraqi refugee youth population is enrolled in school. The UN, Red Crescent, and NGOs such as Save the Children are operating in the region monitoring the situation and have set up care centers with some limited educational opportunities or educational reference services. Students in your classroom are very likely to have experienced interrupted educations and to be several grade levels behind their peers. Girls may well have had less access to education than boys.

គ្រួសារ / សាលាការចូលរួម

Family/School Engagement

Iraqi families value education, and before the war, many Iraqis were highly educated. Parents and older Iraqis may actually have higher literacy rates than teenage Iraqis or young adults.

Iraqi families value education, and before the war, many Iraqis were highly educated. Parents and older Iraqis may actually have higher literacy rates than teenage Iraqis or young adults.

Iraqi males, often classified as achievement-driven and hard workers, thrive in positions of leadership and value affiliation. Iraqi males are likely to do well as community navigators or as leaders of planning committees within the school. The US created a Special Immigrant Visa (SIVs) for Iraqis who were employed by the US government during the Iraq invasion as translators, so you may find interpreters among your parents.

Iraqi males, often classified as achievement-driven and hard workers, thrive in positions of leadership and value affiliation. Iraqi males are likely to do well as community navigators or as leaders of planning committees within the school. The US created a Special Immigrant Visa (SIVs) for Iraqis who were employed by the US government during the Iraq invasion as translators, so you may find interpreters among your parents.

Most Iraqi women wear a hijab and, although they may be somewhat modern in terms of working and driving in the US, they still generally prefer gender separation. Iraqi women are typically responsible for their children’s education and will work hard to ensure their children succeed. Holding ESL classes or other adult education classes with separate genders may increase Iraqi women’s participation. វាជាការសំខាន់ដើម្បីរក្សាទុកក្នុងចិត្តថាជនភៀសខ្លួនជាច្រើនមិនបានដឹងពីរបៀបក្នុងការបើកបរឬការខ្វះលទ្ធភាពទទួលបានរថយន្តមួយ, ដូច្នេះការដឹកជញ្ជូនទៅនឹងព្រឹត្តិការណ៍សាលារៀននឹងក្លាយជាបញ្ហាប្រឈមមួយ.

Most Iraqi women wear a hijab and, although they may be somewhat modern in terms of working and driving in the US, they still generally prefer gender separation. Iraqi women are typically responsible for their children’s education and will work hard to ensure their children succeed. Holding ESL classes or other adult education classes with separate genders may increase Iraqi women’s participation. It is important to keep in mind that many refugees do not know how to drive or lack access to a car, so transportation to school events will be a challenge.

Teachers working with Muslims should remember that Islam does not depict the Prophet Muhammad. នៅក្នុងការពិត, using images of the Prophet is considered offensive.

Teachers working with Muslims should remember that Islam does not depict the Prophet Muhammad. In fact, using images of the Prophet is considered offensive.

វប្បធម៍, យេនឌ័រនិងក្រុមគ្រួសារ

Culture, Gender and Family

There are some Iraqi social traits or customs that are helpful to know. Men commonly hold hands or kiss when greeting each other, but this is typically not the case for men and women. Respect is given to the elderly and women, especially those with children.

There are some Iraqi social traits or customs that are helpful to know. Men commonly hold hands or kiss when greeting each other, but this is typically not the case for men and women. Respect is given to the elderly and women, especially those with children.

Hospitality is an Arab and Muslim tradition deeply ingrained in the culture. Visitors must always be fed and looked after. Invitations to a home should be seen as an honor. Iraqis will often work to help others in need.

Hospitality is an Arab and Muslim tradition deeply ingrained in the culture. Visitors must always be fed and looked after. Invitations to a home should be seen as an honor. Iraqis will often work to help others in need.

ស្ទើរតែ 80% of Iraqis are Arab, while some 15-20% are Kurds. Kurdish women, unlike those in many other Muslim cultures, do not cover their faces, and men and women participate in mixed-gender activities. Iraqi Christians may follow Iraqi cultural traditions but not religious Muslim traditions.

Almost 80% of Iraqis are Arab, while some 15-20% are Kurds. Kurdish women, unlike those in many other Muslim cultures, do not cover their faces, and men and women participate in mixed-gender activities. Iraqi Christians may follow Iraqi cultural traditions but not religious Muslim traditions.

The contemporary conflict between Iraqi Shiites and Sunnis is based not only on a schism that happened almost 14 centuries ago but on the politics of the Saddam Hussein era. The Sunni Arabs, some 15-20% នៃចំនួនប្រជាជននេះ, provided the bulk of the governing class under Saddam, while the Shiites, upward of 60% នៃចំនួនប្រជាជននេះ, were denied political rights and their religious freedoms were curtailed. The majority of non-Kurdish Muslim Iraqis in the United States are Shiites. There are also a large number of Christians.

The contemporary conflict between Iraqi Shiites and Sunnis is based not only on a schism that happened almost 14 centuries ago but on the politics of the Saddam Hussein era. The Sunni Arabs, some 15-20% of the population, provided the bulk of the governing class under Saddam, while the Shiites, upward of 60% of the population, were denied political rights and their religious freedoms were curtailed. The majority of non-Kurdish Muslim Iraqis in the United States are Shiites. There are also a large number of Christians.

Among Muslims, while there is a divide between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims, they share many of the same basic values, including not to consume pork or alcohol, to meet on Fridays at the mosque, and the necessity of fasting, praying, pilgrimage and zakat, or giving to the poor.

Among Muslims, while there is a divide between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims, they share many of the same basic values, including not to consume pork or alcohol, to meet on Fridays at the mosque, and the necessity of fasting, praying, pilgrimage and zakat, or giving to the poor.

Islam is a strictly patriarchal religion such that men are at the head of their family and society generally. Women are expected to be strictly obedient to their husbands. One custom that is at odds with US society is the practice of arranged married for girls of a very young age.

Islam is a strictly patriarchal religion such that men are at the head of their family and society generally. Women are expected to be strictly obedient to their husbands. One custom that is at odds with US society is the practice of arranged married for girls of a very young age.

Between 1960 និង 1980, Iraqi women had gained access to education, healthcare and employment, and their political and economic participation was significantly advanced. But women suffered considerably during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war, with many becoming widows and having to support their families, although at the same time, the shortage of men enabled women to enter fields of education and employment that had previously been closed to them. UN sanctions imposed after the first Gulf War (1991) caused further hardship for the Iraqi people, and since the 2003 សង្រ្គាម, women’s position and security in society has markedly deteriorated. ដូចជា 2009, ទោះបី, this appears to be improving.

Between 1960 and 1980, Iraqi women had gained access to education, healthcare and employment, and their political and economic participation was significantly advanced. But women suffered considerably during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war, with many becoming widows and having to support their families, although at the same time, the shortage of men enabled women to enter fields of education and employment that had previously been closed to them. UN sanctions imposed after the first Gulf War (1991) caused further hardship for the Iraqi people, and since the 2003 war, women’s position and security in society has markedly deteriorated. As of 2009, though, this appears to be improving.

ធនធានបន្ថែម

Additional Resources

ប្រភពធនធាន BRYCS

BRYCS RESOURCES

World Factbook

WORLD FACTBOOK

ផ្ទៃខាងក្រោយជនភៀសខ្លួន

REFUGEE BACKGROUNDERS

សុខភាព

HEALTH

IRAQI AMERICANS

IRAQI AMERICANS

ចែករំលែកគំនិតរបស់អ្នក

Share Your Ideas

If you have comments or additional information or ideas to share on teaching Iraqi students, សូមអ៊ីម៉ែល: info@usahello.org.

If you have comments or additional information or ideas to share on teaching Iraqi students, please email: info@usahello.org.

ចូរយកវគ្គសិក្សារបស់យើងសម្រាប់អប់រំ

Take our Course for Educators

ប្រសិនបើអ្នកចង់បណ្ដុះបណ្ដាលបន្ថែមទៀតលើរបៀបដើម្បីអប់រំសិស្សនិស្សិតជនភៀសខ្លួននិងជនអន្តោប្រវេសន៍, សូមពិចារណាចុះឈ្មោះនៅក្នុងវគ្គសិក្សារបស់យើង, ការអប់រំជនភៀសខ្លួននិងនិស្សិតអន្ដោប្រវេសន៍: វគ្គបណ្តាញសម្រាប់គ្រូបង្រៀន.

If you would like more training on how to educate refugee and immigrant students, please consider enrolling in our course, Educating Refugee and Immigrant Students: An Online Course for Teachers.

បោះពុម្ពពជា PDF មួយនេះ

Print this Information as a PDF

អ្នកអាចទាញយកនិងការបោះពុម្ពនេះ Iraqi learner profile ជា PDF មួយនិងរក្សាទុកវាជាធនធាននៅក្នុងថ្នាក់រៀនរបស់អ្នក.

You can download and print this Iraqi learner profile as a PDF and keep it as a resource in your classroom.

តើទំព័រនេះជួយអ្នកក្នុងការ? មុខ​ញញឹម បាទ មុខចងចិញ្ចើម គ្មាន
សូមអរគុណចំពោះមតិរបស់អ្នក!