ព័រតូរីកូ: Understanding your students from Puerto Rico and their cultural backgrounds

ភាសាអង់គ្លេសផងដែរទេភាសាអង់គ្លេស

សិស្សប្រកាសប្រាប់របស់ Martin: ទម្រង់ផ្ទៃខាងក្រោយវប្បធម៍

Puerto Rican students: Cultural background profiles

សិស្សប្រកាសប្រាប់របស់ Martin
Photo courtesy of Jeff Troth
Puerto Rican students
Photo courtesy of Jeff Troth

អ្នកអប់រំមនុស្សជាច្រើនបានបង្រៀនសិស្សចម្រុះបានរាយការណ៍ថាពួកគេមិនទទួលបានពផ្ទៃខាងក្រោយវប្បធម៍គ្រប់គ្រាន់នៅលើសិស្សរបស់ខ្លួន. ប្រសិនបើអ្នកកំពុងបង្រៀនសិស្សជនភៀសខ្លួន, វាជាការសំខាន់ដើម្បីឱ្យមានការយល់ដឹងអំពីចំណូលថ្មី’ ប្រវត្តិ. ពខាងក្រោមនេះត្រូវបានន័យដើម្បីផ្តល់នូវទិដ្ឋភាពទូទៅនៃការរំលេចសំខាន់មួយ, ដូច្នេះអ្នកអភិវឌ្ឍយុទ្ធសាស្រ្តក្នុងការបង្រៀនឆ្លើយតបវប្បធម៍ដែលមាននៅក្នុងបទភ្លេងជាមួយសិស្សរបស់អ្នក’ រចនាប័ទ្មរៀនតែមួយគត់.

Many educators teaching diverse students report that they do not receive enough cultural background information on their students. If you are teaching refugee students, it is important to be aware of newcomers’ backgrounds. The information below is meant to provide an overview of key highlights, so you develop culturally responsive teaching strategies that are in tune with your students’ unique learning styles.

ភាសាPuerto Rico map

LanguagePuerto Rico map

Spanish and English are the official languages. There may be slightly different intonations and accents than other Spanish countries.

Spanish and English are the official languages. There may be slightly different intonations and accents than other Spanish countries.

ការបង្រៀនក្នុងថ្នាក់រៀន

Teaching in the classroom

The education model is very similar to the US: Puerto Rico has to follow federal laws and regulations, including mandatory education for ages 5 ទៅ 18, and ESSA (Every Student Succeeds Act). Public school instruction occurs in Spanish. English is taught as a mandatory second language at all levels of schooling. Although English is required, you may find that students may not be proficient and may be uncomfortable speaking English.

The education model is very similar to the US: Puerto Rico has to follow federal laws and regulations, including mandatory education for ages 5 to 18, and ESSA (Every Student Succeeds Act). Public school instruction occurs in Spanish. English is taught as a mandatory second language at all levels of schooling. Although English is required, you may find that students may not be proficient and may be uncomfortable speaking English.

High school students have very structured schedules, with minimal electives. ជា​លទ្ធផល, students tend to take all of their classes with the same classmates. Switching classes and classmates may add extra confusion or anxiety. Ensure that students understand their schedule or have a peer that they follow for the whole school day.

High school students have very structured schedules, with minimal electives. As a result, students tend to take all of their classes with the same classmates. Switching classes and classmates may add extra confusion or anxiety. Ensure that students understand their schedule or have a peer that they follow for the whole school day.

Wealthier families who can afford private schooling often choose that route. Many families believe private schools are more rigorous and will improve their children’s chances of succeeding at school. Many are convinced that in the mainland US, public schools are better than private schools. សរុប, students in Puerto Rican schools perform lower than their US counterparts, according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (2005). មានតែ 12% of students in Puerto Rico scored at or abovebasiclevel in fourth grade compared to 79% of students in the US mainland.

Wealthier families who can afford private schooling often choose that route. Many families believe private schools are more rigorous and will improve their children’s chances of succeeding at school. Many are convinced that in the mainland US, public schools are better than private schools. Overall, students in Puerto Rican schools perform lower than their US counterparts, according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (2005). Only 12% of students in Puerto Rico scored at or above “basic” level in fourth grade compared to 79% of students in the US mainland.

High school dropout rates are estimated to be around 60% in recent (2014) ទិន្នន័យ. ទោះជាយ៉ាងណា, over recent decades, the rates of high school and college degrees are increasing and becoming more important in the culture for job placement. Puerto Rico is atypical in that more students graduate with college degrees than the labor market can absorb. Many college graduates find jobs off the island.

High school dropout rates are estimated to be around 60% in recent (2014) data. However, over recent decades, the rates of high school and college degrees are increasing and becoming more important in the culture for job placement. Puerto Rico is atypical in that more students graduate with college degrees than the labor market can absorb. Many college graduates find jobs off the island.

Much of the population (ជាង 90%) is located in urban areas with access to public schools. Due to Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017, many public schools have closed indefinitely in urban and rural areas.

Much of the population (over 90%) is located in urban areas with access to public schools. Due to Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017, many public schools have closed indefinitely in urban and rural areas.

គ្រួសារ / ការចូលរួមសាលារៀន

Family/school engagement

An estimated 93 percent of Puerto Ricans are literate. Teachers should take the time to reach out to parents, giving access to Spanish and English materials, keeping in mind that Spanish is the dominant language.

An estimated 93 percent of Puerto Ricans are literate. Teachers should take the time to reach out to parents, giving access to Spanish and English materials, keeping in mind that Spanish is the dominant language.

It is important to keep in mind that many recently arrived Puerto Rican citizens may lack access to a car, so transportation may be a challenge. លើស​ពី​នេះ​ទៀត, the recent hurricanes have hampered studentsabilities to retrieve records of schooling, birth certificates, and other common requirements for enrollment. Consider adopting waivers or allowing enrollment prior to receiving these documents so that students do not miss school upon arrival.

It is important to keep in mind that many recently arrived Puerto Rican citizens may lack access to a car, so transportation may be a challenge. In addition, the recent hurricanes have hampered students’ abilities to retrieve records of schooling, birth certificates, and other common requirements for enrollment. Consider adopting waivers or allowing enrollment prior to receiving these documents so that students do not miss school upon arrival.

Puerto Ricans are generally indirect communicators and tend to find public conflict to be rude and abrasive. They may partake in a joking form of indirect criticism to convey potentially negative information. If a child is having issues at school, or if information could be seen as negative, it is important for teachers to address the parents in private. Maintain strong boundaries of respect, and pre-identify statements that convey your concern without coming across as rude or aggressive. Gestures and animated conversation are preferred over stoic, neutral conversational tones.

Puerto Ricans are generally indirect communicators and tend to find public conflict to be rude and abrasive. They may partake in a joking form of indirect criticism to convey potentially negative information. If a child is having issues at school, or if information could be seen as negative, it is important for teachers to address the parents in private. Maintain strong boundaries of respect, and pre-identify statements that convey your concern without coming across as rude or aggressive. Gestures and animated conversation are preferred over stoic, neutral conversational tones.

Elementary students tend to need more physical contact. They may be clingy and affectionate. Older female students do not want others to touch them and may be very verbal about anything thatcrosses the line.

Elementary students tend to need more physical contact. They may be clingy and affectionate. Older female students do not want others to touch them and may be very verbal about anything that “crosses the line.”

Puerto Ricans have an event-based idea of time and may not identify lateness as rude or improper, so teachers should explain the value and standards pertaining to punctuality in the U.S. Time is important for image purposes and health; other events have more flexibility with beingon time.

Puerto Ricans have an event-based idea of time and may not identify lateness as rude or improper, so teachers should explain the value and standards pertaining to punctuality in the U.S. Time is important for image purposes and health; other events have more flexibility with being “on time.”

វប្បធម៍, យេនឌ័រនិងក្រុមគ្រួសារ

Culture, gender and family

Puerto Ricans love their children, elders, flag, and heritage. Puerto Ricans are the second-largest Latino group in the US. In Puerto Rico, 99 percent of the population is Latino. Puerto Ricans are US citizens, whether they were born on the island or on the mainland. They are considered migrants rather than refugees or immigrants. Although Puerto Ricans do not vote for the US president, Puerto Rican residents pay taxes and have one voting representative in the House of Representatives. The statehood of Puerto Rico was most recently discussed in a close vote in 2012 after many previously failed votes. Adolescents are engaged and passionate about the issue of Puerto Rico’s statehood.

Puerto Ricans love their children, elders, flag, and heritage. Puerto Ricans are the second-largest Latino group in the US. In Puerto Rico, 99 percent of the population is Latino. Puerto Ricans are US citizens, whether they were born on the island or on the mainland. They are considered migrants rather than refugees or immigrants. Although Puerto Ricans do not vote for the US president, Puerto Rican residents pay taxes and have one voting representative in the House of Representatives. The statehood of Puerto Rico was most recently discussed in a close vote in 2012 after many previously failed votes. Adolescents are engaged and passionate about the issue of Puerto Rico’s statehood.

Gender roles are increasingly egalitarian. Women are active in public and intellectual settings. នៅក្នុងការពិត, Puerto Rico elected the first woman legislator in the Western Hemisphere in 1932.

Gender roles are increasingly egalitarian. Women are active in public and intellectual settings. In fact, Puerto Rico elected the first woman legislator in the Western Hemisphere in 1932.

The majority of Puerto Rican residents are Roman Catholic. The culture celebrates many holidays. Students love technology, dominoes, fashion, music (including merengue and salsa), and the latest musical trends and dances.

The majority of Puerto Rican residents are Roman Catholic. The culture celebrates many holidays. Students love technology, dominoes, fashion, music (including merengue and salsa), and the latest musical trends and dances.

ធនធានបន្ថែម

Additional resources

តើធ្វើដូចម្តេចដើម្បីជួយសិស្សព័រតូរីកូ

How to help Puerto Rican students

World Factbook

WORLD FACTBOOK

សុខភាព

HEALTH

PUERTO RICAN AMERICANS

PUERTO RICAN AMERICANS

ចែករំលែកគំនិតរបស់អ្នក

Share your ideas

If you have comments or additional information or ideas to share on teaching Puerto Rican students, សូមអ៊ីម៉ែល: info@usahello.org.

If you have comments or additional information or ideas to share on teaching Puerto Rican students, please email: info@usahello.org.

យកការពិតណាស់របស់យើងសម្រាប់ការអប់រំ

Take our course for educators

ប្រសិនបើអ្នកចង់បណ្ដុះបណ្ដាលបន្ថែមទៀតលើរបៀបដើម្បីអប់រំសិស្សនិស្សិតជនភៀសខ្លួននិងជនអន្តោប្រវេសន៍, សូមពិចារណាចុះឈ្មោះនៅក្នុងវគ្គសិក្សារបស់យើង, ការអប់រំជនភៀសខ្លួននិងនិស្សិតអន្ដោប្រវេសន៍.

If you would like more training on how to educate refugee and immigrant students, please consider enrolling in our course, Educating Refugee and Immigrant Students.

បោះពុម្ពពជា PDF នេះ

Print this information as a PDF

អ្នកអាចទាញយកនិងការបោះពុម្ពនេះ Puerto Rican cultural background ជា PDF មួយនិងរក្សាទុកវាជាធនធាននៅក្នុងថ្នាក់រៀនរបស់អ្នក.

You can download and print this Puerto Rican cultural background as a PDF and keep it as a resource in your classroom.

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