Ragihandin a li DYA'yê

English jîNo English

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and bodies. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and bodies. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

 

 

communication between cultures

communication between cultures

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

Ziman

Language

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

şaşfêmkirin

Misunderstandings

Di dema pêşî çend mehan hûn li Dewletên Yekbûyî yên Amerîkayê ne, tu dê şaş gelek tiştan. Ev normal e û ne sûcê we. Try best xwe ji bo pozîtîf - eger yekî nagere, xuya an wateyê, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

Eger tu tiştekî ye, ku ji te re got fêm ne, kesê bixwaze dubare çi ew got. An jî ji wan bixwazin ku careke din dibêjim tênê more. Loma netirsin, ji bo pirs ji.

If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.

mijar hesas

Sensitive topics

Gelek Amerîkî li ser mijarên hin hessas in. Bo nimûne:

Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:

They may be “sîyaseten rast.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. Bo nimûne, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. Ev duristîya alîkarî dike ji bo afirandina civakeke bi berfirehî. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

Herî Amerîkî hez nakin ku li ser giranîya xwe re biaxivin, temenê xwe, an jî çiqas pere ew. Ger tu tiştekî dibêjim weight yekî, çend salî ne, an jî çawa dewlemend an jî belengaz ew in, ew bibe xeyîdî.

Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.

Gel jî, dibe ku nexwazin bi we re dibêjim ku ew diçin an jî cihê ku lê dijî. Eger kesek ji we bipirse, “Hûn diçin ku?” ew dikarin bifikirin ku tu xwedî niyeta xerab.

People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. herêmên hevpar seranserî çandan zarok û sporê in. Eger tu bi ku demeke dijwar re dipeyivîn ji bo kesekî, talk about these topics!

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!

Gotûbêja biçûk

Small talk

Most Americans will talk “Gotûbêja biçûk” gel we. Ew dê bixwazin ku tu çawa yî an behsa hewayê. This is considered polite. Eger yek bêje, “Tu çawa yî?” ya mirovê din hema hema her tim dibêje:,”Baş,” “Baş,” an “OK,” heta eger ew an jî wê bi xemgînî an xwedîtinê e.

Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.

Tika ye, û spas dikim

Please and thank you

Li DYA, gel re bêjin ku “ji kerema xwe ve” gava ku ew ji bo tiştekî bipirsim û “sipas ji were” gava ku ew tiştek bistîne an jî kesek ji wan re dibe alîkar. Amerîkî de mêldarê spasiya kesên din jî ji bo tiştên biçûk. Eger kesekî xudanê derî vekirî ji bo we, baştire ku dibêjin: spas dikim. Eger kesekî dide we a gift, hûn jî dibêjin spas dikim.

In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.

English wek zimanê duyem

English as a second language

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, tu çînên azad peyda bike û li civaka we de. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, you can find free classes online and in your community. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Hewl da ku guhdariya û pratîkên English ku bi qasî ku hûn dikarin. Nîqaş, an û got: tiştên kardike, ku yek ji parçeyên herî zor li ser fêrbûna zimanê nû ye. tone û te ku peyvên tu jî meseleyê dikşîne. Dibe ku hun hest hingiya ji ber ku hûn dibêjin tiştek kardike, lê Amerîkî dikarin ji we fêm ne. Ne hemû Amerîkî bi zarawe biyanî tê bikaranîn.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.

ragihandinê Nonverbal

Nonverbal communication

Dema ku em di hevpeyvînekê de bi kesên din in,, em bi du awayan girîng têkiliyê: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • contact eye
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice
  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • eye contact
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice

Hinek kes bawer ragihandinê nonverbal ji peyvên rastî em dibêjin, bêhtir girîng e,. Ev alîkarî gel biryarê bide, eger ew dixwazin û baweriya din.

Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.

çandên cuda bi kar tînin bikaranîna cureyên cuda yên ragihandinê nonverbal. Va ne, hin ji yên ku bi awayên Amerîkî bikaranîna ragihandinê nonverbal:

Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:

contact eye

Eye contact

Herî Amerîkî ku têkilî çavê axaftinên girîng. Eger tu têkiliyê eye make ne, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. Kesên ku rasterast binêrin nav çavên te de gelek caran weke dilsoz zêdetir bînrawe, reweşenbîr, û kind. Eger hûn ji çanda bên cihê ku mirov nav çavên hevdu binêrin ne, dibe ku ev be ji bo we gelek ji bo ku ez.

Most Americans make eye contact during important conversations. If you do not make eye contact, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. People who look directly into your eyes are often viewed as more trustworthy, intelligent, and kind. If you come from a culture where people do not look into each other’s eyes, this may be very hard for you to do.

Smiling

Smiling

Americans smile a lot to be polite and to show that everything is okay. Gava ku hûn dicivin yekî nû, ku ew li bendê ne ku hûn ji biggrin li wan.

Americans smile a lot to be polite and to show that everything is okay. When you meet someone new, they expect you to smile at them.

Nerrînî

Posture

Ger tu xwe rast, xelkê ji we re rêz zêdetir bide.

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

Pêbûn

Touch

Herî Amerîkî destên dihejînin gava ewan rastî. Carna mirov hev û din, wê hembêz bike, eger ew berê hev nas. Eger tu hîs Destgirtina nerehetîya, te tune ne, bi wî awayî.

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

Dem

Space

Li DYA, gel xwedî zêdetir “qada şexsî.” Ev tê wê wateyê, eger tu çi dibêjî ji bo kesekî, ew ê muhtemelen bisekine qet nebe nig ji we dûr.

In the USA, people have more “personal space.” This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

Sedem ji

Arguments

Gel li Dewletên Yekbûyî yên Amerîkayê bi hîn “rabe” ji bo bawerîyên xwe. Ev tê wê wateyê, ku yek ji bi we re hemfîkîr, ew dikarin bi we re dibêjin ku hewl didin îspat bikin xala xwe. Ev dikare bibe gelekî xirav, eger tu ji çandeke ku bi nirxên were “Di tomarkirina rûyê.” Li hin welatan, diçe nav NÎQAŞ Dibe ku wateya hûn rûyê xwe winda kiriye.

People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

Amerîkî dibêjin ji hêrsa an bi me re şer, lê ji bo we nîşan çima ew bawer dikin ku ew rast in. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, eger tu bi eşkereyî dipeyivî pir bi dengekî bilind (hewarek) an jî bikaranîna zimanê xerab nagere. Xwendekarên bi destûr û heta teşwîq arîkarîyê bi mamosteyên xwe. Zarok dikarin bi dê û bavê xwe dibêjin. Karkerên dikarin bi patronên xwe re arîkar î, lê dûvre. Carna, especially in American politics, kes dibêjin, wusa ku tiştek dikarin kirin!

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

Ger tu bibini di argumana, pêkan e ku şirove bike ku tu û de'w rehet hîs ne. Lebê, dibe ku hûn divê fêr bibe ku mirovên ku hûn bi wan re ne re bêjin, an jî ku ew difikirin ku we li hev bi tiþtê ew dibêjin.

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

Dilşahî

Humor

Yek part yên ragihandinê ku çetin û dijwar be, gava ku tu eyarkirina a çanda nû humor e. Te bibe -Eger ku kesên li dora fêm nakin ku. An yek -Eger ku hûn fêm nakin ku. Ji ber ku humor çandî ye, carna heta eger hûn fêm joke, hûn jî bawer nakim ku funny e.

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

Pêkenîn

Jokes

Gelek Amerîkî dixwazin ku jokes re dibêjim. Carna, jokes dikarin funny û her kes dikene. Carna, jokes dikane êrîşker be. Bo nimûne, yek -Eger li ser esasê nijad an zayendî re dibêjim. Ev kes û jokes siyasî agadar bikerewe! Eger kesekî nukte, ku tu pê ture dibêje, hûn dûvre bi dikarin bêjin hûn bibînin ku ev êrîşeke an bêhurmetîya û ji wan bixwazin ku te ti jokes zêdetir yên ku rengî re bêjin ne.

Many Americans like to tell jokes. Sometimes, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. Sometimes, jokes can be offensive. For example, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

Satire

Satire

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Ji ber vê, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. Bo nimûne, there are some US newspapers that are “henek” rojname, - ew nivîsandina nûçeyan e ku gotaręn an funny, lê ne rast e. Bo nimûne, nivîsareka Rojnameya satîrî Amerîkî bi navê Pîvaz nivîsî çîroka Serokê Koreya Bakûr. Wan got, ew mirovê herî xweşikê di cîhanê de deng bû. Hinek kes li Koreya Bakur û Çînê qey çîrokeke rastîn bû. Lê çîroka tenê henek bû.

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Because of this, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. For example, there are some US newspapers that are “joke” newspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. For example, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

Du Xezaleke

Comedies

Li DYA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Carna, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

In the USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Sometimes, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

Pranks

Pranks

Hinek Amerîkî dixwazim ji bo ceribandina hev û din. li Amerîkaya, e ku cejna navê April Fools hene’ Roj. Ev li ser roja pêşî ya meha Nîsanê ye. Di vê rojê de, gelek kes dixwazin ji bo hewl to play tricks. Bo nimûne, yekî li ser kar dibe ku tu bawer tiştekî rast e, dema ew e ne. Gel re dibêjin van jokes “pranks” an “dibirim lingê xwe.”

Some Americans like to trick each other. In America, there is a holiday called April Fools’ Day. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. For example, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokes “pranks” or “pulling your leg.”

Kontrat û peyman

Contracts and agreements

Li Amerîka, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

Peymanên bi piranî bi devkî ne. Bo nimûne, yek dikare te bipirsim ku tu tiştekî û ji te re dibêjin erê an jî na. Ev lihevhatin e. li Amerîkaya, peymanên devkî bi piranî bi awayekî pir cîdî. Carna, gava we peymaneke bi devkî, hûn jî dikarin dest dihejînin. Dest hejandinê sembola ku tu bi herdu dê ji bo pêkanîna peymanê.

Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. Bo nimûne, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. Lebê, belkî ew şaş famkirinê û qey hûn wateya Dotira rojê.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.

Eger tu bi tiştekî razî, ew ji bo emrîkayiyekan giring e ku tu an ku peymana bi cih an ku tu wan nas tu di peymanê temam ne. This is true even for something small. Bo nimûne, eger kesek ji we bipirse ku firavînê û hûn dibêjin erê, te jî, divê ji bo firavînê here yan jî tu ji wan re dibêjin û ji wan re bêje, hûn nikarin bên berî dem ji bo firavînê ew e.

If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

Peymanên peymanên ku çi du nivîsîn (yan jî zêdetir) gel hev ji bo. Gava ku tu nav xaniyekî we bar îmza kiriyên. Dema ku tu dest bi karekî, we dibe ku peymana kar bistîne. Ger tu kirîna otomobîlê li ser kredîyan, hûn peymana deyn îmze. Hemû ji van peymanan de ne.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

Ger tu îmzekirina girêbesta, we tê texmînkirin ferzkirina zagonan a ji bo pêkanîna ku girêbestek. Loma jî gelek giring e ku tu bi baldarî bixwînin. Ger di peymanê de li English e, dibe ku hûn jî dixwazin ku ji bo alîkariyê bixwazin wergera wê. Ji bo ku girêbestek sade, you can ask a friend or you can email me and we will try to help you understand the contract. Eger ew di derbarî pere, kar, an xizmetên hiqûqî, dibe ku hûn dixwazin bi kar translator profesyonel an memûrê xwe bipirsin ji bo şîret.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

facts ne - Ev binavkirinên li ser çanda amerîkî tê de, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. riyên û çanda Amerîkayê ne çêtir ne an xerabtir ji riyên din - just cuda.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

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