ဆိုမာလီယာ: Understanding your students from Somalia and their cultural backgrounds

အင်္ဂလိပ်လည်းအဘယ်သူမျှမအင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာ

မတူကွဲပြားသောကျောင်းသားများကိုဆုံးမဩဝါဒပေးတျောမြားမြားပညာတတ်များသူတို့ကျောင်းသားများကိုအပေါ်အလုံအလောက်ယဉ်ကျေးမှုနောက်ခံသတင်းအချက်အလက်မခံမယူကြဘူးကြောင်းသတင်းပို့. သငျသညျဒုက္ခသည်ကျောင်းသားများကိုဆုံးမဩဝါဒပေးနေတယ်ဆိုရင်, အသစ်ရောက်ရှိလာသောသတိထားဖြစ်ရန်အရေးကြီးပါသည်က’ နောက်ခံ. အောက်ပါအချက်အလက်များကို key ကိုပျေါလှငျခြုံငုံသုံးသပ်ပေးဖို့ရည်ရွယ်သည်, ဒါကြောင့်သင့်ရဲ့ကျောင်းသားတွေနဲ့အတူညှိ၌နေသောယဉ်ကျေးမှုတုံ့ပြန်မှုသင်ကြားမှုမဟာဗျူဟာများဖွံ့ဖြိုး’ ထူးခြားတဲ့သင်ယူမှုစတိုင်များ.

Many educators teaching diverse students report that they do not receive enough cultural background information on their students. If you are teaching refugee students, it is important to be aware of newcomers’ backgrounds. The information below is meant to provide an overview of key highlights, so you develop culturally responsive teaching strategies that are in tune with your students’ unique learning styles.

Somali students in class in Minnesota. Photo by Andrew Cullen, the Washington Post.
Somali students in class in Minnesota. Photo by Andrew Cullen, the Washington Post.
Somali students in class in Minnesota. Photo by Andrew Cullen, the Washington Post.
Somali students in class in Minnesota. Photo by Andrew Cullen, the Washington Post.

ဘာသာစကား

Language

ဆိုမာလီ, အဘိဓါန် Arabic, some Italian and Englishဆိုမာလီယာ

Somali, Arabic, some Italian and EnglishSomalia

ယင်းစာသင်ခန်း၌ဆုံးမဩဝါဒ

Teaching in the Classroom

Many students will have no formal education before coming to the United States. Most Somali refugee camps offer schools in camp, although the number and quality of the schools is contingent on funds provided by local governments and international relief agencies. ရလဒ်အနေဖြင့်, schools frequently experience teacher shortages, lack of materials, and lack of electricity and attendance is generally low. In Dadaab refugee camp, the largest Somali camp, သာ 40% of children attend primary school and less than 20% အလယ်တန်းကျောင်းတက်ရောက်ရန်. Children often prioritize taking care of younger siblings, helping parents, or aiding sick relatives.

Many students will have no formal education before coming to the United States. Most Somali refugee camps offer schools in camp, although the number and quality of the schools is contingent on funds provided by local governments and international relief agencies. As a result, schools frequently experience teacher shortages, lack of materials, and lack of electricity and attendance is generally low. In Dadaab refugee camp, the largest Somali camp, only 40% of children attend primary school and less than 20% attend secondary school. Children often prioritize taking care of younger siblings, helping parents, or aiding sick relatives.

In Somalia itself, သာ 5% of children complete primary school, and fewer than 3% graduate from secondary school. Schools are usually modest institutions with limited seating and chalkboards. Primary education includes nine compulsory subjects: Islamic Studies, အဘိဓါန် Arabic, ဆိုမာလီ, သင်္ချာအတတ်ပညာ, စီးပွားရေးလုပ်ငန်း, သိပ္ပံ, လူမှုရေးလေ့လာမှုများ, physical education, အင်္ဂလိပ်, နှင့် arts and crafts. Classes are short, typically lasting 35 သို့မဟုတ် 40 minutes per subject. Most classes are taught in Somali or Arabic with an emphasis on oral learning over writing. Higher education is largely private. Technical and vocational schools are available at both primary and secondary levels. Qur’anic schools are the most frequent option in rural areas.

In Somalia itself, only 5% of children complete primary school, and fewer than 3% graduate from secondary school. Schools are usually modest institutions with limited seating and chalkboards. Primary education includes nine compulsory subjects: Islamic Studies, Arabic, Somali, mathematics, business, science, social studies, physical education, English, and arts and crafts. Classes are short, typically lasting 35 or 40 minutes per subject. Most classes are taught in Somali or Arabic with an emphasis on oral learning over writing. Higher education is largely private. Technical and vocational schools are available at both primary and secondary levels. Qur’anic schools are the most frequent option in rural areas.

Somali parents teach discipline at a young age, so Somali students will likely get used to the structured classroom environment fairly quickly. Girls have difficulty continuing their education as many are forced to do housework rather than homework. Girls will likely need encouragement in a classroom setting.

Somali parents teach discipline at a young age, so Somali students will likely get used to the structured classroom environment fairly quickly. Girls have difficulty continuing their education as many are forced to do housework rather than homework. Girls will likely need encouragement in a classroom setting.

Most Somalis eat with their hands and it is common for family members or close friends to use the same cup and bowls; it may be challenging for students to adjust to the US individualistic style of eating.

Most Somalis eat with their hands and it is common for family members or close friends to use the same cup and bowls; it may be challenging for students to adjust to the US individualistic style of eating.

မိသားစု / ကျောင်းထိတွေ့ဆက်ဆံရေး

Family/School Engagement

Education is highly valued but due to the patriarchal nature of the culture, mothers will likely be more present within the classroom setting. Women typically submit to men and do not socialize with men in public places. This may be challenging in a school situation, especially if the teacher is a male. Encouraging women to make decisions about their child’s education can be advantageous. Somalis have great respect for their elders, so if you have the opportunity, engage the student’s grandparents in the child’s school activities. Somalis value oral communication above all else, but do not have the habit of expressing gratitude verbally, which may be discouraging to educators helping their children.

Education is highly valued but due to the patriarchal nature of the culture, mothers will likely be more present within the classroom setting. Women typically submit to men and do not socialize with men in public places. This may be challenging in a school situation, especially if the teacher is a male. Encouraging women to make decisions about their child’s education can be advantageous. Somalis have great respect for their elders, so if you have the opportunity, engage the student’s grandparents in the child’s school activities. Somalis value oral communication above all else, but do not have the habit of expressing gratitude verbally, which may be discouraging to educators helping their children.

It is considered disrespectful to hand objects or shake hands with one’s left hand. It is suggested to let parents and students initiate handshakes and set parameters when greeting. Somalis also use certain Arab hand gestures to communicate.

It is considered disrespectful to hand objects or shake hands with one’s left hand. It is suggested to let parents and students initiate handshakes and set parameters when greeting. Somalis also use certain Arab hand gestures to communicate.

Somali society continues to be defined by clan identities, and teachers should attempt to learn which clans their students are from in case rivalries or ill feelings exist. သို့သော်, the word clan can be very contentious and should be avoided if possible. Ask your students or families directly which words they use to describe their identity. Men of the same clan-family share a long handshake when greeting one another. Women greet informally and may hug and kiss one another on the cheek. Members of unrelated clan-families may not want to shake hands or exchange intimacies. Some Somalis in the U.S. have tried hard to build unity and overcome historic tension. Others feel their past history cannot be easily forgotten.

Somali society continues to be defined by clan identities, and teachers should attempt to learn which clans their students are from in case rivalries or ill feelings exist. However, the word clan can be very contentious and should be avoided if possible. Ask your students or families directly which words they use to describe their identity. Men of the same clan-family share a long handshake when greeting one another. Women greet informally and may hug and kiss one another on the cheek. Members of unrelated clan-families may not want to shake hands or exchange intimacies. Some Somalis in the U.S. have tried hard to build unity and overcome historic tension. Others feel their past history cannot be easily forgotten.

In Somalia, the concept of time is flexible, so individuals may be late to appointments or leave early, when they find it appropriate. Teachers should stress the importance of promptness in the United States to ensure timelines are followed. Somalis are extremely family-oriented, so approaching the entire family if a student is experiencing behavioral or health issues is recommended.

In Somalia, the concept of time is flexible, so individuals may be late to appointments or leave early, when they find it appropriate. Teachers should stress the importance of promptness in the United States to ensure timelines are followed. Somalis are extremely family-oriented, so approaching the entire family if a student is experiencing behavioral or health issues is recommended.

ယဉျကြေးမှု, ကျားနှင့်မိသားစု

Culture, Gender and Family

Somalis, the dominant ethnic group in Somalia, make up 85% လူဦးရေရဲ့; minority groups include Arabs, Southeast Asians, and the Bantus, who were brought from Southeastern Africa by Somalia as slaves. Individuals with lighter skin tones may be held in higher regard. The use of nicknames is very common, as there are many individuals with the same traditional names, such as Mohamud and Fatima. Most Somalis are Muslim.

Somalis, the dominant ethnic group in Somalia, make up 85% of the population; minority groups include Arabs, Southeast Asians, and the Bantus, who were brought from Southeastern Africa by Somalia as slaves. Individuals with lighter skin tones may be held in higher regard. The use of nicknames is very common, as there are many individuals with the same traditional names, such as Mohamud and Fatima. Most Somalis are Muslim.

There are two Somali traditional practices that are against U.S. ပညတ်တရားကို, including female genital cutting, which typically happens when girls reach puberty, and burning (scarring) to help with healing after an injury. Schools can help educate students about the health issues caused by these customs and conduct public health outreach to families. By focusing on health and legal consequences rather than labeling theses customs as wrong, you will likely have a better reaction from the families you are helping.

There are two Somali traditional practices that are against U.S. law, including female genital cutting, which typically happens when girls reach puberty, and burning (scarring) to help with healing after an injury. Schools can help educate students about the health issues caused by these customs and conduct public health outreach to families. By focusing on health and legal consequences rather than labeling theses customs as wrong, you will likely have a better reaction from the families you are helping.

It is common for several generations of a Somali family to live in the same home. Men are considered the head of a household and about 20%, mainly Somali Bantus, have multiple wives. In the U.S., most Somalis only have one wife and/or their remaining wives are still in Somali. When inviting a family to a parent-teacher conference, you can assume the biological mother will attend.

It is common for several generations of a Somali family to live in the same home. Men are considered the head of a household and about 20%, mainly Somali Bantus, have multiple wives. In the U.S., most Somalis only have one wife and/or their remaining wives are still in Somali. When inviting a family to a parent-teacher conference, you can assume the biological mother will attend.

အပိုဆောင်းအရင်းအမြစ်များ

Additional Resources

Bridging Refugee Youth and Children’s Services

Bridging Refugee Youth and Children’s Services

ကမ္ဘာ့မှတ်တမ်းများအရ

WORLD FACTBOOK

ဒုက္ခသည်များနောက်ခံ

REFUGEE BACKGROUNDERS

IRC ဒုက္ခသည်များဆရာ Packet

IRC REFUGEE TEACHER PACKET

SOMALI HISTORY AND IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES

SOMALI HISTORY AND IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES

ကျန်းမာရေး

HEALTH

သင့်ရဲ့အကြံပြုချက်များကိုမျှဝေရန်

Share Your Ideas

If you have comments or additional information or ideas to share on teaching Somali students, အီးမေးလ်ပို့ပါ: info@usahello.org.

If you have comments or additional information or ideas to share on teaching Somali students, please email: info@usahello.org.

ပညာပေးဘို့ငါတို့သင်တန်းကိုယူ

Take our Course for Educators

သငျသညျဒုက္ခသည်နှင့်လူဝင်မှုကျောင်းသားများကိုပညာပေးဖို့ဘယ်လိုပိုမိုလေ့ကျင့်သင်တန်းပေးလိုပါလျှင်, ကျွန်တော်တို့ရဲ့သင်တန်းအပ်နှံစဉ်းစားပါ ကျေးဇူးပြု., ပညာပေးဒုက္ခသည်များနှင့်ပြောင်းရွှေ့လာသောလူကျောင်းသားများ: ဆရာများအနေနဲ့အွန်လိုင်းသင်တန်း.

If you would like more training on how to educate refugee and immigrant students, please consider enrolling in our course, Educating Refugee and Immigrant Students: An Online Course for Teachers.

တစ်ဦးကို PDF အဖြစ်ဤသတင်းအချက်အလက် Print

Print this Information as a PDF

သင်ဤဒေါင်းလုဒ်လုပ်ပြီး print ထုတ်နိုင်ပါတယ် Somali learner profile PDF အဖြစ်နှင့်သင့်စာသင်ခန်းထဲမှာတစ်ဦးအရင်းအမြစ်အဖြစ်စောင့်ရှောက်.

You can download and print this Somali learner profile as a PDF and keep it as a resource in your classroom.

ဒီစာမျက်နှာအကူအညီနဲ့သငျသညျပွုခဲ့? အပြုံးမျက်နှာ ဟုတ်ကဲ့ မျက်မှောင်ကြုတ်မကျြနှာကို အဘယ်သူမျှမ
သင်၏အကြံပြုချက်အတွက်ကျေးဇူးတင်ပါသည်!