Komunikacija v ZDA

Tudi angleškiNe angleško

Sporočilo je, kako delimo informacije in ideje z drugimi ljudmi. To delamo z govorjenjem, s pisanjem, in celo z našimi rokami, Obraz, in organi. V novi državi, moramo naučiti nove načine komuniciranja. Tukaj je nekaj nasvetov, ki vam pomaga komunicirati v ZDA.

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and bodies. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

 

 

communication between cultures

communication between cultures

V prvih mesecih v ZDA, bo veliko krat, ko ne razumete ljudi in situacije. To je zelo težko, vendar je tudi normalno. Poskusi, da ne bo odvrnilo! Komunikacija se bo bolje s časom. Navaditi se boste morali na novo kulturo in začeti razumeti jezik.

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

Jezik

Language

Ko pridete v novo državo, ne vedoč, jezik naredi vse, kar je težko. Tukaj je nekaj koristnih stvari vedeti o komuniciranju z Američani.

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

Nesporazumi

Misunderstandings

V prvih nekaj mesecih ste v Združenih državah Amerike, verjetno bo razumel veliko stvari. To je normalno in ne tvoja krivda. Poskusite svoje najboljše, da pozitiven – če nekdo nesramen ali srednja, Spomni se, da je lahko zaradi kulturne razlike. Ne predvidevajte, da so slabo ali nevljudno osebo.

During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

Če ne razumete, kar je dejal, da si, Prosite osebo naj se ponovijo, kaj so rekli. Ali prosite, da pravijo, da še enkrat več preprosto. Ne bojte se sprašuje, vodi.

If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.

Občutljivih temah

Sensitive topics

Mnogi Američani so občutljivi o določenih temah. Na primer:

Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:

Lahko se “politično korekten.” Biti politično korekten pomeni težaven, da ne rečem stvari, ki bodo užalili določeno skupino ljudi. Na primer, mnogi Američani ne prenašajo rasističnih ali seksističnih šale. Ta pravilnost pomaga ustvariti vključujočo družbo. Ampak to bo povzročilo težave, če so drugi nespoštljiv.

They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

Večina Američanov ne maram govoriti o svoji teži, njihovo starost, ali koliko denarja bodo. Če ti povem nekaj o nekoga teže, kako stari so, kako bogati ali slabo, bi jih razburjen.

Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.

Uporabniki tudi ne želijo povedati, če se bo ali kjer živijo. Če vas nekdo, “kam greš?” morda mislijo, da imate slabe namene.

People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.

Obstaja nekaj tem, o katerih se je lažje pogovarjati, ne da bi imeli težave s komunikacijo. Skupni prostori med kulturami so otrok in šport. Če imate težko pogovarjam z nekom, govoriti o teh temah!

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!

Kramljanje

Small talk

Večina Američanov bo govoril “kramljanje” z vami. Bo vprašal, kako ste ali pogovor o vremenu. To velja za vljuden. Če nekdo reče, “kako si?” druga oseba skoraj vedno pravi,”dobro,” “Globe,” ali “v redu,” tudi če on ali ona je žalosten ali slabo.

Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.

Prosim in hvala

Please and thank you

V ZDA, ljudje pravijo “prosim” ko zaprosijo za nekaj in “hvala” ko dobijo nekaj ali nekdo jim pomaga. Američani nagibajo k drugim zahvaliti tudi za malenkosti. Če nekdo ima vrata odprta za vas, je vljudno rekel hvala. Če nekdo vam darilo, lahko bi tudi rekli hvala.

In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.

Angleščino kot drugi jezik

English as a second language

Učenje angleščine je ena od najpomembnejših stvari, ki jih lahko storite, da vam pomaga prilagoditi življenje v ZDA. Če ne govorite veliko angleško, najdete brezplačne razrede na spletu in v vaši Skupnosti. Poiščete lahko načine za Naučite se angleško Online ali v lokalne skupnosti.

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, you can find free classes online and in your community. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

Eden od najboljših načinov, da se naučijo novega jezika je, da se potopite v njem in poslušati, da je veliko. Poskusite poslušati in prakse slovenski, kakor lahko. Izgovorjava, ali rek stvari pravilno, je eden najbolj zahtevnih delov za učenje novega jezika. Tvoj ton in besede ki ste poudarjajo tudi zadevo. Vi oblast potipati uničen, ker govoriš nekaj pravilno, vendar Američani ne razume. Niso vsi Američani so vajeni tujih poudarki.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.

Neverbalnega komuniciranja

Nonverbal communication

Ko smo v pogovoru z drugimi ljudmi, komuniciramo na dva pomembna načina: Verbalno (uporaba besed) in nonverbally. Neverbalna komunikacija pomeni način, kako uporabljamo naše telo za komunikacijo. Vključuje:

When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

  • obrazno mimiko
  • ročne poteze
  • očesni stik
  • Držo (kako stojimo ali sedemo)
  • ton glasu
  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • eye contact
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice

Nekateri ljudje mislijo, neverbalnega komuniciranja je pomembnejša od dejanske besede, rečemo. Pomaga ljudem odločiti, če jim je všeč in zaupanje drugi.

Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.

Različne kulture uporabljajo različne vrste neverbalnega komuniciranja. Tukaj je nekaj načinov, ki so Američani uporabljajo neverbalnega komuniciranja:

Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:

Očesni stik

Eye contact

Večina Američanov bi očesni stik med pomembni pogovori. Če vam ne bo stika z očmi, ljudje lahko mislijo, da lažeš ali kaj je narobe. Narod kdo pogled naravnost v oči so pogosto gledati kot bolj zanesljiva, inteligentni, in vrste. Če prihajate iz kulture, kjer ljudje ne gledajo v drug drugega oči, To je lahko zelo težko za vas.

Most Americans make eye contact during important conversations. If you do not make eye contact, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. People who look directly into your eyes are often viewed as more trustworthy, intelligent, and kind. If you come from a culture where people do not look into each other’s eyes, this may be very hard for you to do.

Nasmejan

Smiling

Američani nasmeh veliko biti vljudni in pokazati, da je vse v redu. Ko srečaš nekoga novega, pričakujejo, da nasmeh na njih.

Americans smile a lot to be polite and to show that everything is okay. When you meet someone new, they expect you to smile at them.

Držo

Posture

Če stojite vzravnano, ljudje težijo k temu, da vam več spoštovanja.

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

Dotik

Touch

Večina Američanov rokovali, če izpolnjujejo. Včasih ljudje bodo objem seboj če že vedo, med seboj. Če se počutite neprijetno tresenje roke, nimate, da se rokovali.

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

Prostor

Space

V ZDA, ljudje imajo več “osebni prostor.” To pomeni, če govoriš nekomu, bo verjetno stojijo vsaj stopala stran od vas.

In the USA, people have more “personal space.” This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

Argumentov

Arguments

Ljudje v Združenih državah poučujejo v “vstani” za svoje prepričanje. To pomeni, če nekdo ne strinja z vami, lahko trdijo z vami, da bi poskušali dokazati svoje točke. To je lahko zelo neprijetno, če ti prihajajo iz kulture, da vrednosti “varčevanje obraz.” V nekaterih državah, pridobivanje v argument lahko pomeni, ste izgubili obraz.

People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

Američani trdijo, ne iz jeze ali za boj proti, ampak, da vam pokaže, zakaj menijo, da so pravilno. Prepiranje je na splošno sprejeto kot del pogovora, razen če ste govoril zelo glasno (kričal) ali slabo ali nevljudno jeziku. Študentje dovoljeno in celo spodbuja, da se ne strinjajo z učitelji. Otroci lahko trdijo, s starši. Delavci lahko ne strinjajo s svojimi šefi, vendar vljudno. Včasih, zlasti v ameriški politiki, ljudje toliko trdijo, da lahko dobite nič!

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

Če vi potipati neudoben v argument, je prav, da pojasni, da vam ne počutijo udobno trdi. Vendar, morate naučiti povedati ljudem, da se ne strinjate z njimi, ali pa morda mislijo, da se strinjate s tem, kar pravijo.

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

Humor

Humor

En del komunikacije, ki je lahko zelo težko, ko se prilagajajo novo kulturo je humor. Lahko naredite šala, da ljudje okrog ne razumejo. Ali lahko nekdo šala, da ne razumete. Ker humor je kulturni, včasih tudi, če boste razumeli šala, vi oblast ne pretehtati to je smešno.

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

Šale

Jokes

Mnogi Američani radi povedati šale. Včasih, mogoče smešno šale in vsakdo se smeji. Včasih, šale je lahko žaljivo. Na primer, nekdo bi lahko povedal šala na podlagi rase ali spola. Teh ljudi in šale niso politično korekten! Če nekdo pove šalo, ki žali ste, poveste lahko vljudno zdi žaljivo ali nespoštljivo in prosite, da ne povem vse več šale za tovrstno.

Many Americans like to tell jokes. Sometimes, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. Sometimes, jokes can be offensive. For example, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

Satira

Satire

Svoboda govora je zaščitena z ustavo Združenih držav Amerike. Zaradi tega, Ameriški mediji lahko šale o stvareh, ki jih ljudje v drugih državah, ne sme šala o. Na primer, Obstaja nekaj ameriških časopisov, ki so “šala” časopisi – pišejo novice, ki je satiričnih ali smešne, ampak ni res. Na primer, AMERIŠKI satirični časopis naslovom na Čebula napisal zgodbo o predsednika Severne Koreje. Rekli, da je bil izbran najbolj lep človek na svetu. Nekateri ljudje v Severno Korejo in Kitajsko mislil, zgodba je res. Ampak zgodba je bila samo šala.

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Because of this, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. For example, there are some US newspapers that are “joke” newspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. For example, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

Komedije

Comedies

V ZDA, Nekateri ljudje radi gledajo komedije na televiziji. Morda tudi želeli gledati strokovne komedijante na TELEVIZIJI ali v gledalcih in klubih. Včasih, Ameriški komedije in komedijante lahko žaljivo.

In the USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Sometimes, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

Pranks

Pranks

Nekateri Američani radi trik med seboj. V Ameriki, tam je praznik imenuje norcev’ Dan. To je prvi dan aprila. Na ta dan, Mnogi ljudje radi poskusite igrati triki. Na primer, nekoga pri delu lahko verjamete, nekaj je res, ko ni. Ljudje klic te šale “pranks” ali “vleče vaše noge.”

Some Americans like to trick each other. In America, there is a holiday called April Fools’ Day. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. For example, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokes “pranks” or “pulling your leg.”

Pogodb in sporazumov

Contracts and agreements

V ZDA, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

Sporazumi so običajno verbalne. Na primer, kdo lahko prosi, da narediš nekaj in si reči da ali ne. To je dogovor. V Ameriki, ustnih dogovorov na splošno jemlje zelo resno. Včasih, ko bo ustni dogovor, vi lahko tudi rokovati. Tresenje rok je simbol, ki ste tako bo za izpolnitev sporazuma.

Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. Na primer, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. toda, morda narobe, in mislil, si mislil naslednji dan.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.

Če se strinjate, da nekaj, pomembno je, da Američani, da ste bodisi izpolnitev sporazuma ali da pustite jih veš ne more dokončati sporazuma. This is true even for something small. Na primer, Če nekdo prosi, da kosilo in rečeš, da, ali greste na kosilo ali morate poklicati njih in jim povem, ne more priti, preden je čas za kosilo.

If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

Pogodbe so pisne sporazume, da so kar dva (ali več) ljudje so se. Ko premaknete v stanovanju se prijavite najem. Ko začnete delo, lahko prejmete pogodbo o zaposlitvi. Če ste kupili avto na kredit, podpišete posojilno pogodbo. Vsi ti so pogodbe.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

Če podpisujete pogodbo, verjetno imate pravna obveza za izpolnitev pogodbe. Zato je zelo pomembno, da si preberete skrbno. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can Pišite nam and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, delo, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

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