Komunikacije u USA

Takođe na engleskomNe zna engleski

Komunikacija je kako delimo informacije i ideje sa drugim ljudima. To radimo pomoću govora, tako što ćete napisati, a čak i golim rukama, lice, i tela. U novoj zemlji, Moramo saznati nove načine za komunikaciju. Evo nekoliko saveta radi lakšeg komuniciraju u USA.

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and bodies. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

 

 

communication between cultures

communication between cultures

Tvoja prva meseca u USA, biće mnogo puta kad ne razumete ljudi i situacija. Ovo je veoma teško, Ali i to je normalno. Bolje da nisi obeshrabren! Komunikacije će s vremenom biti bolje. Ti će se navići na novu kulturu i početi da razumeju jezik.

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

Jezik

Language

Kada stignete u novoj zemlji, Ne znajući jezik čini sve teško. Evo nekih korisnih stvari znati o komunikaciji sa Amerikancima.

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

Nesporazumi

Misunderstandings

U prvih nekoliko meseci, vi ste u Sjedinjenim Državama, će mi verovatno niste mnogo toga. Ovo je normalno i nije tvoja krivica.. Dati sve od sebe da budem pozitivna – ako se neko pojavi, neprijatna ili zla, Seti se da je to možda zbog kulturnih razlika. Ne predpostavljaj su loše ili nepristojna osoba.

During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

Ako ne razumete nešto što ti je rekao, Zamolite osobu da biste ponovili su rekli. Ili da ih zamolim da izgovorim opet više jednostavno. Ne boj se da se stalno pitam.

If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.

Osetljiva tema

Sensitive topics

Mnogi Amerikanci su osetljiva na određenim predmetima. Na primer:

Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:

Oni mogu biti “korektno.” Se trudi da ne govore stvari koje bi uvredila određenu grupu ljudi politiиki korektno sredstva. Na primer, Mnogi Amerikanci tolerisati rasistički ili seksistički viceve. Ovu ispravnost pomaže u kreiranju društvo. Ali to će izazvati probleme, ako nas drugi ne poštuju.

They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

Većina Amerikanaca ne volim razgovarati o svoju težinu, njihovim godinama, ili koliko para da naprave. Ako kažeš nešto o nekome težina, Koliko su stare, ili koliko je bogat ili jadni su, Oni su možda naljutiti.

Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.

Ljudi takođe ne bi htjela ti reci gde su krenuli, ili gde žive. Ako pitate nekoga, “Gde ćeš?” Možda misle da imate loše namere.

People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.

Postoje neke teme koje su lakše govoriti o bez problema s komunikacijom. Zajedničke prostorije kroz kulture su deca i sport. Ako ti se jako retko razgovarao s nekim, razgovaramo o ovim temama!

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!

Mali razgovor

Small talk

Većina Amerikanaca će razgovarati “mali razgovor” sa tobom. Oni će pitati kako ste ili razgovarati o vremenu. Ovo je pristojno. Ako neko kaže, “kako si?” Onaj drugi je skoro uvek kaže,”Dobro,” “U redu,” ili “u redu,” čak i ako on ili ona je tužna ili nije dobro.

Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.

Molim i hvala

Please and thank you

U USA, ljudi govore “Molim te” Kada budu pitali za nešto i “Hvala ti” Kada su dobili nešto ili nekoga da im pomaže. Amerikanci imaju tendenciju da se zahvalim drugima čak i male stvari. Ako neko drži vrata otvorena za tebe, To je pristojno da vam se zahvalim. Ako te neko bude poklon, Da li mogu takođe Hvala.

In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.

Engleski kao drugi jezik

English as a second language

Učenje engleskog je jedan od najvažnijih stvari koje ti mogu da vam pomažu da podesite da život u Americi. Ako ne govorite engleski, Besplatna predavanja možete pronaći na internetu i u vašoj zajednici. Možete pronaći načine za Saznajte engleskog na mreži ili u tvoje mesne zajednice.

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, you can find free classes online and in your community. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

Jedan od najboljih načina da biste saznali novi jezik je da uroniљ u to i da se Poslušat ćemo mnogo. Pokušajte da slusas i trening engleski, koliko god možete. Izgovor, ili govori neke stvari pravilno, jedna od najtežih delova učenje novog jezika. Tvoj ton i reči koje ste naglasili pitanje. Se osjećaš frustriran jer kažete nešto ispravno, Ali Amerikanci ne mogu da te razumem.. Nisu svi Amerikanci su navikli stranim akcentom.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.

Neverbalne komunikacije

Nonverbal communication

Kada smo u razgovoru s drugim ljudima, komuniciramo na dva važna načina: verbalno (korišćenje reči) i izraћavao. Neverbalne komunikacije znači kako koristimo naše telo za komunikaciju. To uključuje:

When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

  • izraze lica
  • pokretima ruku
  • kontakt očima
  • ima stav (Kako mi stoje ili sjede)
  • ton glasa
  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • eye contact
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice

Neki ljudi misle da je otkucavao je mnogo važnije od stvarne reči da kažemo. To pomaže ljudima da odluči ako su kao i verovati drugima..

Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.

Različitim kulturama koriste različite vrste neverbalne komunikacije. Evo nekoliko načina kako Amerikanci koristite neverbalne komunikacije:

Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:

Kontakt očima

Eye contact

Većina Amerikanaca kontaktirati pogledom tokom važne razgovore. Ako ne se kontakt očima, ljudi možda misle da si lagao, ili nešto nije u redu. Ljudi koji gledaju pravo u oči su često smatra vredniji poverenja., inteligentni, i ljubazna. Ako si iz kultura gde ljudi ne gledaj u oci jedan drugome, Ovo može biti veoma teško za tebe da uradim.

Most Americans make eye contact during important conversations. If you do not make eye contact, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. People who look directly into your eyes are often viewed as more trustworthy, intelligent, and kind. If you come from a culture where people do not look into each other’s eyes, this may be very hard for you to do.

Smeje

Smiling

Americans smile a lot to be polite and to show that everything is okay. Kada vas upoznam nekog novog, Oni očekuju da im se osmehujem.

Americans smile a lot to be polite and to show that everything is okay. When you meet someone new, they expect you to smile at them.

Ima stav

Posture

Ako stojite uspravno, ljudi imaju tendenciju da ti dam više poštovanja.

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

Dodir

Touch

Većina Amerikanaca rukuju se kad se sretnu. Ponekad ljudi će grle se ako već poznaju se. Ako ti bude neugodno drhtala ruke, Ne morate da se rukujemo.

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

Prostor

Space

U USA, ljudi imaju više “privatni prostor.” To znači da ako ti pričaš sa nekim, će verovatno stoje barem ispred nosa.

In the USA, people have more “personal space.” This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

Argumenti

Arguments

Ljudi u Sjedinjenim Državama, uče se da “ustani” zbog svojih uverenja. To znači da ako neko ne slaže sa tobom, Oni mogu da se raspravljam sa tobom da bi dokazao svoju poentu. Ovo može biti vrlo neugodno ako dolazite iz kulture tog vrednosti “lice!” U nekim zemljama, Ulazi u raspravu može značiti da si izgubio lice.

People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

Amerikanci tvrde da ne iz besa ili da se bore, Ali da vam pokazati zašto oni misle da su ispravili.. Tvrdeći da je generalno prihvaćen kao deo razgovora, Osim ako ne govorite vrlo glasno (vrisak) ili koristeći loše ili nepristojan jezik. Studenti su dozvoljeni i čak i ohrabrio da se ne slažu sa njihovim nastavnicima. Deca mogu da se raspravljam sa njihovi roditelji. Radnici mogu se ne slažem sa preprekama, Ali ljubazno. Ponekad, posebno u ameriиkoj politici, ljudi se toliko raspravljati da ništa može da se uradi!

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

Ako ti je neprijatno u raspravu, u redu, da ti objasnim da ne oseti udobno tvrdeći da je. Međutim, Morate se naučiti da se sazna da ti se ne slažu sa njima u suprotnom možda misle da se slažete šta kažu.

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

Humor

Humor

Jedan deo komunikacije koje može biti vrlo teško, kad te prilagođava u novu kulturu je humor. Ti bi ovo sala koja ne razumem ljude oko. Ili neko može napraviti sala koja ne razumete. S obzirom da humor kulture, Ponekad, čak i ako razumete vic, Ne mislite da je zabavno.

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

Vicevi

Jokes

Mnogi Amerikanci vole da viceve. Ponekad, šale mogu biti zabavan, i svi ti se smeju. Ponekad, šale mogu biti uvredljive. Na primer, Možda ne. samo na osnovu rase ili polova. Ovi ljudi i vicevi nisu politiиki korektno! Ako neko kaže šala Pa, da, ljubazno recite pronaрeљ uvredljivo i uvredljivi i zamoli ih da ti ne kažem više viceve te vrste.

Many Americans like to tell jokes. Sometimes, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. Sometimes, jokes can be offensive. For example, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

Satira

Satire

Sloboda govora je zaštićen ustav Sjedinjenih Država. Zbog ovoga, Američke medije da ismevamo stvari koje ljudi u drugim zemljama ne može da se љaliљ o. Na primer, Postoje neke američke novine koje su “Vic” novine – su pisali to je satirični ili zabavan, Ali nije istina. Na primer, AMERIČKI satirični novinski papir zove se Crni luk napisao pricu o predsednik Severna Koreja. Rekli su da je glasao je najlepsi muskarac na svetu. Neki ljudi u Severna Koreja i Kina je mislio da je priča je istinita. Ali priиa je bila samo šala.

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Because of this, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. For example, there are some US newspapers that are “joke” newspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. For example, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

Komedije

Comedies

U USA, Neki ljudi vole gledati komedije na televiziji. Takođe vole gledati profesionalni komičari na TV-u ili u bioskopima i klubovi. Ponekad, Američki komedije i komedijaši mogu biti uvredljive.

In the USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Sometimes, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

Podvala

Pranks

Neki Amerikanci vole jedni druge prevariti. U Americi, je praznik koji se zvao prvi April’ Dan. To je na prvi dan u aprilu. Na ovaj dan, Mnogi ljudi vole da probam da izvodim trikove. Na primer, neko na poslu mogao bi vas navelo da je nesto istina kada to nije. Ljudi zovu te šale “podvala” ili “zadirkivale.”

Some Americans like to trick each other. In America, there is a holiday called April Fools’ Day. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. For example, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokes “pranks” or “pulling your leg.”

Ugovorima i sporazumima

Contracts and agreements

U sad-u, pismenog ugovora i verbalne sporazuma su važna.

In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

Sporazumi su obično verbalna. Na primer, Neko može pitati možeš li uraditi nešto, a ti reci "da" ili "ne. To je sporazum. U Americi, verbalni sporazumi obično vrlo ozbiljno shvaćaju. Ponekad, Kada vršite usmeni ugovor koji, ti može takođe da se rukujemo. Rukovanje je simbol koji oboje ćete za ispunjenje ugovora.

Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.

Jedan problem sa verbalne sporazuma je da ponekad ljudi mogu ne shvataju. Na primer, možete napraviti usmeni ugovor koji je sa nekim ko ti se ipak na 5 h tog dana. Ali, Možda su nesporazum i mislio sutradan.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.

Ako pristanete na nešto, Važno je da Amerikanci da ni ti ispuni taj sporazum ili da si im javim da ne može da dovrši sporazum. Ovo važi i za nešto malo. Na primer, Ako neko pita na rucak, a što kažeš da, ni treba da odete na ručak ili treba da ih nazvati i reci im da se pre vremena za ručak.

If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

Ugovori su pisani sporazumi koje država koja dva (ili više) ljudi se slažu da. Kada premeštate u stan ti potpisati najam za. Pri pokretanju posla, Možda ćete dobiti ugovor o zaposlenju. Ako si kupio auto na kredit, mogu da potpišu sporazum o kreditu. Sve ovo su ugovori.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

Ako si potpisao ugovor, Verovatno imate zakonsku obavezu da ispuni taj ugovor. Tako da je veoma važno da ti pažljivo je pročitajte. Ako je ugovor na engleskom, Želite li da zamolim za pomoć oko prevođenja to. Za jednostavnu ugovor, Pitajte prijatelja ili možete Pišite nam i trudimo se da vam pomogne da shvatite ugovor. Ako je u pitanju novac, rad, ili pravne usluge, Želite li da koristite profesionalne prevodioca ili pitajte socijalni radnik za savet.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

Ovo su generalizacija o američku kulturu – ne činjenice, Samo ideje da ti pomognem da bolje razumete zašto Amerikanac može biti gluma puta tj različite da si ti navikao. Američki načina i kulture nisu bolji ili gori od drugih načina – samo različite.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

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