Amerika madaniy farqlarni tushunish

Ingliz tili, shuningdek,Hech Ingliz tili

Amerikaliklar o'z urf-odatlari va ishlarni yo'lini bor. Bu yangi kelganlar uchun murakkab bo'lishi mumkin. Amerika jamiyati va madaniy farqlar haqida, bu ma'lumot sizga AQSh madaniyatini tushunishga yordam beradi.

Americans have their own customs and way of doing things. It can be confusing for newcomers. This information about American society and cultural differences will help you understand US culture.

Amerika madaniyat - Turli madaniyatlar ikki ayol

american culture - two women from different cultures

tarix

History

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Britaniya bir marta mustamlaka edi. Bu erkin mamlakat bo'ldi 1776 Amerika inqilobi keyin. Yana bir katta nizo fuqarolar urushi keldi, 1860 davomida. Fuqarolik urushi amerikaliklar huquqlari haqida jang, Afrikadan olib qilindi qullarni egalik qilish huquqi, shu jumladan,. qul ozod qilindi, va qonunlar o'zgartirildi.

The United States was once a colony of Britain. It became a free country in 1776 after the American Revolution. Another big conflict came in the Civil War, during the 1860s. Americans in the Civil War fought about rights, including the right to own slaves who were brought from Africa. The slaves were freed, and the laws were changed.

Amerika tarixi va madaniy farqlar haqida bilish Yana bir muhim narsa amerikaliklar ko'p tumanlarga kelgan, deb hisoblanadi. Faqat Mahalliy amerikaliklar (Shuningdek, hindlarning chaqirdi) Amerikadan ajdodlari bor. Boshqa barcha amerikaliklar boshqa qit'alaridan kelgan ajdodlari bor. Ularning ko'pchiligi qochqinlar keldi.

Another important thing to know about American history and cultural differences is that Americans come from many backgrounds. Only Native Americans (also called Indians) have ancestors from America. All other Americans have ancestors who came from other continents. Many of them came as refugees.

irq

Race

Bu tarix, chunki, irqiy masalalar Amerika madaniyati muhim ahamiyatga ega. qonun odamlar, barcha bir xil bo'ladi, deydi. Lekin AQShda muhim madaniy xilma biri amerikaliklar irqi o'zlarini ajratish, deb. Afro-amerikaliklar har doim oq bir xil imkoniyatlar olish yo'q. Ko'p bo'lmagan oq amerikaliklar oq amerikaliklar ko'proq kambag'al bo'lgan.

Because of this history, racial issues are important in American culture. The law says people are all the same. But one of the important cultural differences in the USA is that Americans divide themselves by race. African Americans do not always get the same opportunities as whites. Many non-white Americans are poorer than white Americans.

e'tiqod

Beliefs

Amerikaliklar o'z mamlakat juda faxrlanamiz. Amerika madaniyati va jamiyati erkinlik qurilgan, teng huquq va demokratiya. Amerikaliklar bepul so'z g'oyasini qadrlaymiz. Bu ular prezident bilan bog'liq qanday aytish ruxsat berilgan, degan ma'noni anglatadi. Ular hukumat ular yoqtirmayman narsani qachon norozilik.

Americans are very proud of their country. American culture and society is founded on freedom, equal rights and democracy. Americans value the idea of free speech. This means they are allowed to say what they like about the president. They protest when the government does things they do not like.

din

Religion

Qonun hukumat hech qanday dinga amal qilmaslik kerak deydi va odamlarning diniy va madaniy farqlar huquqiga ega. Lekin eng amerikaliklar nasroniy bayramlarni nishonlash. atrofida 80% Amerikaliklar ular masihiy deb, da kam 40% cherkovga borib. Islom kabi, Xristianlik bir Xudoga quyidagicha. Bu ularning qo'shnilari mehribon bo'lishi va hurmat bilan muomala qilish izdoshlarini aytadi.

The law says the government must not follow any religion and people have a right to their religious and cultural differences. But most Americans celebrate Christian holidays. About 80% of Americans say they are Christian, although fewer than 40% go to church. Like Islam, Christianity follows one God. It tells followers to be kind to their neighbors and to treat others with respect.

sizga bir amaliyot musulmon bo'lsa, Agar imoningizni haqida ish beruvchi bilan gaplashish va kunduzi ibodat uchun joy so'rashingiz mumkin. talabalar ibodat qilish uchun ko'p maktablar, shuningdek, bir oraliq beradi.

If you a practicing Muslim, you can talk to your employer about your faith and ask for a place to pray during the day. Many schools will also provide a space for students to pray.

Bayramlar, tantanalar

Holidays and celebrations

Odamlar ularning oilalari bilan birga olish va yirik ovqat eb bayramlarni nishonlash. eng katta dam olish Rojdestvo bor (dekabr 25) va Mustaqillik kuni (iyul 4). Mustaqillik kuni mushakbozlik va barbeküyle nishonlanadi. Yangi Yil kechasi (dekabr 31) yana bir katta bayram bo'ladi. vaqti kechasi yarim qadar Odamlar kech qolish va vaqt pastga hisoblash. Halloween (oktyabr 31) Bir kuni sifatida nishonlanadi kulgili kiyim kiygizib va ​​o'yin-kulgi uchun.

People celebrate holidays by getting together with their families and by eating large meals. The biggest holidays are Christmas (December 25) and Independence Day (July 4). Independence Day is celebrated with fireworks and barbecues. New Year’s Eve (December 31) is another big celebration. People stay up late and count down the time until the clock strikes midnight. Halloween (October 31) is celebrated as a day to dress up in funny clothes and have fun.

Tug'ilgan kunlar juda muhim. Amerikaliklar sovg'alar bilan bayram, tort va partiya. yosh bolali oilalar ko'pincha partiyalar ega va qo'shnilariga taklif etadi, sinfdoshlaringiz va tug'ilgan kunlarni nishonlash uchun do'st.

Birthdays are very important. Americans celebrate with gifts, cake and parties. Families with young children will often have parties and invite neighbors, classmates and friends to celebrate birthdays.

pul

Money

kapitalistik iqtisodiyot odamlar, degan ma'noni anglatadi (emas, balki hukumat) O'z biznes va xizmatlar. Sog'liqni saqlash katta ish. Fermerlikni ham muhim ahamiyatga ega. Ko'pchilik fermer xo'jaliklari katta va biznes qarashli bo'lgan.

The capitalist economy means that people (not government) own businesses and services. Healthcare is a big business. Farming is important too. Many farms are big and owned by businesses.

Biznes egalari hamjamiyatiga yordam berish uchun talab qilinmaydi, lekin ko'p mahalliy yoki milliy xayriya uchun ehson qilish. Amerikaliklar xayriya uchun juda ko'p pul ehson. Ko'pchilik cherkovlar va jamoat tashkilotlari oziq-ovqat bilan ta'minlash, uy-joy, kam ta'minlangan oilalarga va asoslari.

Business owners are not required to help the community, but many make donations to local or national charities. Americans donate a lot of money to charities. Many churches and community organizations provide food, housing, and essentials to low-income families.

Lekin Amerika madaniyati yanada individual bo'ladi. Agar e'tibor mumkin madaniy xilma-biri odamlar, odatda, o'z kengaytirilgan oila bilan pul baham emas, deb hisoblanadi. Ular ehson yoki ularning oila a'zolari yoki do'stlar yordam berish uchun tanlashingiz mumkin, lekin u kutilmoqda emas.

But American culture is more individual. One of the cultural differences you may notice is that people do not usually share their money with their extended family. They may choose to donate or help their extended family members or friends, but it is not expected.

Ismlar

Names

Eng amerikaliklar uch nomlari: ism, otasini ismi, va oilaviy nomi (Shuningdek, familiyasi deb nomlangan). Ular nikohdan qachon Eng ayollar o'z erining familiyasiga olib, Ba'zi o'z familiyasini saqlab yoki har ikkala foydalanish da. Agar bola ko'ra turli familiyasini bo'lsa, Agar bola sizning bola dalil ko'rsatish uchun kerak bo'lishi mumkin.

Most Americans have three names: first name, middle name, and family name (also called last name). Most women take their husband’s last name when they get married, although some keep their own last name or use both. If you have a different last name than your child, you may be required to show proof that the child is your child.

Oqsoqollar

Elders

Ular boshqa ko'plab mamlakatlarda kabi kattalarni xurmat bir xil darajada yo'q. Odamlar universitet professor ko'proq hurmat berishga moyil, biznes rahbarlari, va boy odamlar. Bu katta kelganlar uchun bir qattiq tuzatish mumkin.

Elders do not have the same level of respect as they do in many other countries. People tend to give more respect to university professors, business leaders, and rich people. This may be a hard adjustment for older newcomers.

vaqt

Time

vaqt tushunchasi qattiq bo'lgan, va bu yangi kelganlar bilan kurash deb madaniy farqlar biridir. Odamlar eng kundalik voqealar uchun vaqtni belgilash. Ular o'z keyingi tayinlash vaqti bor ishonch hosil qilish uchun, erta bir tadbir tark etadi. Time ish va maktab sozlash, ayniqsa muhim ahamiyatga ega.

The concept of time is strict, and this is one of the cultural differences that newcomers struggle with. People set a time for most daily events. They will leave an event early to make sure they are on time to their next appointment. Time is especially important in work and school settings.

Jismoniy aloqa

Physical contact

Erkaklar va ayollar odatda qo'l berib. ammo, bir ayol kamaya qo'llarini silkitardi yoki bir odamni teginish uchun okay bo'ladi. Erkaklar ko'pincha bir-biriga tegmang, ehtimol, chayqab qo'llari yoki tez quchoq tashqari. Bu boshqa odamlarni teginish okay bo'ladi. Ayollar bir-biriga tegib ehtimoli ko'proq bo'ladi, Bunday quchoq qilib, ular birinchi bir-birini ko'rib yoki ular vidolashishni qachon. Oila a'zolari ko'pincha bosing va bir-biriga quchoqlay.

Men and women typically shake hands. However, it is okay for a woman to decline to shake hands or to touch a man. Men do not touch each other very often, except for shaking hands or possibly a quick hug. It is okay to touch other men. Women are more likely to touch one another, such as a hug when they first see one another or when they say goodbye. Family members often touch and hug each other.

Aloqa

Communication

Odamlar «hi» ertalab aytish yoki tabassum, lekin ertalab boshqa oila a'zolari bilan salomlashish uchun ko'p vaqt tutmang mumkin. Agar birinchi ish kelganda Siz hamkasblaringiz salom mumkin. Odamlar kulib va ​​ko'p "rahmat".

People may say “hi” in the morning or smile but do not take a lot of time to greet other family members in the morning. You can greet your co-workers when you first arrive at work. People smile and say “thank you” a lot.

Yozish muhim va rasmiy muloqot uchun ishlatiladi. Agar bir parcha qog'oz imzo bo'lsa, odamlar juda jiddiy qog'oz o'tadi. Huquqiy shartnomalar sud tomonidan amalga oshirilishi mumkin yozilgan hujjatlar imzolandi.

Writing is used for important and official communication. If you sign a piece of paper, people will take the paper very seriously. Legal contracts are signed written documents that can be enforced by the court.

ovqat

Eating

Odamlar asosan kumush bilan eb (vilka, pichoq va qoshiq) ekan, ular sendvich eb, gamburgerlar, yoki tez oziq-ovqat. Ular har bir taom o'rniga bir piyola almashish yoki plastinka uchun o'z lavha va kosadan foydalaning. siz uyda bir mehmonni bo'lsa, Agar alohida plastinka ustida ularni oziq-ovqat taklif mumkin. Ishonch hosil bo'lmasa, oziq-ovqat, kommunal yoki bir kishi uchun bo'lsa, Agar so'rash mumkin.

People mostly eat with silverware (fork, knife and spoon) unless they are eating sandwiches, hamburgers, or fast food. They use their own plate and bowl for each meal instead of sharing one bowl or plate. If you have a guest at your home, you can offer them their food on a separate plate. If you are unsure if food is communal or for one person, you can ask.

ta'lim

Education

Barcha bolalar asrlar maktabga borish kerak 5 uchun 18. Eng o'qituvchilar ayollar, lekin ko'p odamlar o'rgatishda, ham. Maktablar ota-onalar bolalar ta'lim joy olish uchun kutish. Bu maktabda yig'in yoki hodisalarni qatnash anglatadi. O'quvchilar Topshiriq bajarish uchun vaqt berish degan ma'noni anglatadi, va ularni yordam o'rganish. Amerika ota-onalar, shuningdek, ko'ngilli sifatida maktabda yordam.

All children must go to school from ages 5 to 18. Most teachers are women, but many men teach children, too. Schools expect parents to get involved in their children’s education. This means attending meetings or events at the school. It means giving students time to complete homework, and helping them to learn. American parents also help in the school as volunteers.

Sizning bolalar guruhlari va jamoa ishlashga o'rganadilar. Ular kollej uchun holatlarida o'tish o'qishadi. Amerika maktablarida bolalar tanqidiy fikrlash o'rganadilar. tanqidiy anglatadi fikr talabalar g'oyalar savol kutilmoqda. Natijada, talabalar o'z ota-onalariga savol boshlaydi mumkin. Bu hurmatsizlik belgisidir emas. Ular maktabda va ishda muvaffaqiyatga erishish uchun muhim mahorat o'rgandim ko'rsatadi.

Your children will learn to work in groups and teams. They will study to pass tests for college. Children in American schools learn how to think critically. Thinking critically means students are expected to question ideas. As a result, students may start to question their parents. This is not a sign of disrespect. It shows they have learned an important skill to succeed in school and work.

sog'lik

Health

ular kasal bo'lganda, ko'p odamlar faqat o'rniga yillik tekshirishlar uchun shifokor tashrif. Shifokorlar juda hurmat.

Many people visit the doctor for yearly check-ups rather than just when they are sick. Doctors are very respected.

bir tibbiy xodim siz oila a'zolari tibbiy yordam haqida sizlarga gapirib bo'lmaydi, Ular qo'pol bir belgisi sifatida, bu tutmang. Qonun ular sabr ruxsat berish uchun bir formasini imzoladi bo'lmasa, boshqa odamlar bilan bir bemorning salomatligini muhokama qilish ruxsat yo'q, deydi.

If a health worker will not talk to you about your family member’s medical care, do not take this as a sign they are being rude. The law says they are not allowed to discuss a patient’s health with other people unless the patient signs a form to give permission.

maslahat

Counseling

Maslahatchi juda yaxshi hurmat. Amerikaliklar bir maslahatchi bir oila a'zosi yoki boshqa ayanchli va qattiq tadbirlar o'limi orqali ularga yordam berish uchun ko'rish uchun juda keng tarqalgan. Deyarli har bir maktab o'quvchisi ning o'z maqsadlariga erishish yordam berish uchun bir maslahatchi ega, Bunday kolleji ketadi deb. Sizning talaba maslahatchi ko'rish kerak bo'lsa,, Bu sizning oila uchun katta yordam bo'lishi mumkin va oilangiz uchun salbiy hech narsa degani emas.

Counselors are very well respected. It is very common for Americans to see a counselor to help them through the death of a family member or other sad and hard events. Almost every school has a counselor to help student’s achieve their goals, such as going to college. If your student needs to see a counselor, this can be a big help for your family and does not mean anything negative for your family.

Nikoh va ajralish

Marriage and divorce

AQShda, Agar faqat bir kishi bilan turmush qurgan bo'lishi mumkin. Ko'pxotinlilik qonunga zid. Divorce umumiy va AQSh qabul qilinadi.

In the US, you can only be married to one person. Polygamy is against the law. Divorce is common and accepted in the United States.

Oila

Family

Ota-onalar va bolalar, ba'zan bobosi - Ko'p odamlar faqat ularning yaqin oila a'zolari bilan yashash. oilalarning Faqat bir kichik miqdor ularning oila a'zolari bilan yashaydi. ko'proq an'anaviy jamiyatlarda dan yangi kelganlar uchun eng sezilarli madaniy farqlar biri.

Most people live only with their immediate family members – parents and children and sometimes grandparents. Only a small percentage of families live with their extended families. The is one of the most noticeable cultural differences for newcomers from more traditional societies.

Erkaklar va ayollar, ham oila uchun muhim bo'lgan. Eng erkaklar kabi, ovqat pishirish va tozalash va bolalar g'amxo'rlik qilish kabi uy yumushlarida yordam. Bu ishlarni amalga Erkaklar o'z uylarida mas'ul, deb ko'riladi.

Men and women are both important to the household. Most men help with household chores such as cooking and cleaning and taking care of children. Men who do these chores are still seen as in charge of their homes.

Eng oilalar ikki farzandi bor. Ko'p odamlar yasli o'z farzandlarini yuborish to'lash. Bu nazorat holda uy yolg'iz farzand tark qonunga zid. Bu urish qonun yoki jismoniy o'qish bolalarga qarshi ham.

Most families have two children. Many people pay to send their children to daycare. It is against the law to leave children home alone without supervision. It is also against the law to hit or physically discipline children.

Ayollar va qizlar

Women and girls

AQShda, erkaklar va ayollar yashayotgan, ish, va birga maktabga borib. Bu ba'zi yangi kelganlar uchun eng katta madaniy farqlar biri va tuzatish bo'ladi. Erkaklar va ayollar ham ijtimoiy tadbirlarda aralashtirib. Lekin siz bir jinsda shifokor bo'lishi uchun so'rashi mumkin.

In the US, men and women live, work, and go to school together. This is one of the biggest cultural differences and adjustment for some newcomers. Men and women mix at social events too. But you can request to have a doctor of the same sex.

Qizlar faqat O'g'il bolalar kabi, ularning ta'lim bilan davom. Amerika o'g'il va yumushlarida bilan ham yordam qizlar. Amerika qizlar ular kattalar yoki turmush qadar uy ishlatish uchun bormagan.

Girls continue with their educations just like boys. American boys and girls both help with chores. American girls are not expected to run households until they are adult or get married.

AQShda, ayollar va qizlar hali ham ular hayz paytida ish va maktabga borish uchun kutilmoqda.

In the US, women and girls are still expected to go to work and school while they are menstruating.

Ayollar odatda erkaklar kabi uydan tashqarida ishlash. Eng ayollar bir yoki ikki haftadan so'ng, o'z Kichkintoylar g'amxo'rlik. Ish beruvchilar bir necha hafta davomida to'lanmagan vaqt off berishi kerak, lekin keyin, ular ayollar iloji boricha tezroq ishlashga qaytish uchun kutish.

Women usually work outside the home like men. Most women take care of their babies on their own after one or two weeks. Employers must give unpaid time off for a few weeks, but then they expect women to return to work as soon as possible.

ish

Work

Ba'zi kelganlar, ular Amerika kadrlar uchun hech qanday mahorat yo'q deb. Bu to'g'ri emas. Ko'pchilik yangi kelganlar bir necha tilda gapirish. Ular qiynab omon, chunki ular kuchli. Eng yangi kelganlar qiymati ta'lim. Ular o'rganish va qattiq mehnat qilishga tayyor. Kelganlar muhim hissa. Agar ish topish yordam berish uchun biz ish resurslaridan foydalanish va ish muvaffaqiyatga Iltimos.

Some newcomers say they do not have any skills for the American workforce. This is not true. Many newcomers speak more than one language. They are strong because they have survived great hardship. Most newcomers value learning. They are willing to study and work hard. Newcomers make important contributions. Please use our work resources to help you find work and succeed at work.

Ko'proq ma'lumot olish

Learn more

Boshqa manbalar

Other resources

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