AQShda Aloqa

Ingliz tili, shuningdek,Hech Ingliz tili

Aloqa Biz boshqa odamlar bilan ma'lumot va fikr almashish qanday. Biz gapirib buni, yozma tomonidan, va hatto bizning qo'llari bilan, yuz, va tana. Yangi mamlakatda, Biz muloqot yangi yo'llarini o'rganish kerak. Bu yerda siz AQShda muloqot yordam berish uchun bir necha maslahatlar.

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and body. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

communication between cultures

communication between cultures

AQShda birinchi oy davomida, Agar odamlar va vaziyatlarga tushunmayman qachon bir necha marta u erda bo'ladi. Bu juda qiyin, lekin u ham oddiy emas. Harakat tushkunlikka emas! Aloqa vaqt bilan yaxshi bo'ladi. Siz yangi madaniyat o'tsak va tilini tushunish boshlaydi.

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

til

Language

Agar yangi mamlakatga kelganingizda, Tilni bilmay hamma narsa qiyinlashtiradi. Bu erda amerikaliklar bilan muloqot haqida bilish, ayrim foydali narsalar bor.

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

tushunmovchiliklarning

Misunderstandings

birinchi bir necha oy davomida AQShda bo'lgan, Agar, ehtimol narsalarni ko'p noto'g'ri tushunib etadi. Bu sening aybing yo'q normal va. kimdir qo'pol paydo bo'lsa yoki degani - ijobiy bo'lishi uchun eng yaxshi harakat, Chunki madaniy farq bo'lishi mumkin, deb o'zingizni eslatib. Ular yomon yoki qo'pol odam bo'lgan deb o'ylamang.

During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

Agar sizga aytilgan narsa anglamaydilar bo'lsa, Ular aytgan so'zimni takrorlashni shaxsni so'rang. Yoki yana shunchaki yana aytish ulardan so'rab. berib Qo'rqma.

If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.

nozik mavzular

Sensitive topics

Ko'plab amerikaliklar muayyan mavzularda sezgir. Masalan:

Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:

Ular bo'lishi mumkin “siyosiy to'g'ri.” odamlar bir guruh xafa bo'ladi narsani aytish emas, balki harakat siyosiy to'g'ri vositalari bo'lish. Masalan, ko'p amerikaliklar irqchilik yoki cinsiyetçi hazil toqat yo'q,. Bu to'g'ri Inklyuziv jamiyat yaratish uchun yordam beradi. Boshqalar hurmatsizlik bo'lsa, lekin u muammolarni sabab bo'ladi.

They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

Eng amerikaliklar o'z og'irligi haqida gapirish yoqtirmayman, ularning yoshi, yoki qancha pul ular. Agar kimningdir og'irligi haqida biror narsa desangiz, Qanday eski ular, yoki qanday boy yoki kambag'al, ular, ular xafa bo'lishi mumkin.

Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.

Odamlar ham, ular yer yoki qaerda, ular yashayotgan qaerda sizga aytib bermoqchiman mumkin emas. Agar kimnidir so'rasang, “Qayerga ketyapsiz?” Ular siz yomon niyat bor, deb o'ylayman mumkin.

People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.

aloqa muammo bo'lmasdan haqida gapirish oson, ba'zi mavzular bor. madaniyatlar o'rtasidagi mushtarak sohalarda bolalar va sport bor. Agar kishi bilan gaplashib, bir qattiq vaqt bo'lgan bo'lsa, Bu mavzular haqida gapirish!

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!

Kichik munozarasi

Small talk

Eng amerikaliklar suhbatlashamiz “kichik munozarasi” sen bilan. Ular siz qanday so'rash yoki ob-havo haqida suhbatlashamiz. Bu muloyim hisoblanadi. kimdir desa, “Qalaysiz?” Boshqa odam deyarli har doim deydi,”Yaxshi,” “jarima,” yoki “OK,” u yoki qayg'uli yoki betob bo'lsa ham.

Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.

Iltimos, va rahmat

Please and thank you

AQShda, odamlar aytish “Iltimos” ular biror narsa so'rash qachon va “rahmat” Ular biror narsani olish yoki kimdir ularni yordam beradi qachon. Amerikaliklar ham oz narsalarni boshqalarga rahmat moyil. kimdir siz uchun ochiq bir eshikni ushlab bo'lsa, U rahmat aytish muloyim bo'ladi. kimdir sizga sovg'a bersa, Siz ham rahmat aytish kerak.

In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.

ikkinchi til sifatida ingliz

English as a second language

Learning English siz AQShda hayotga moslashtirish Agar yordam berish uchun, albatta, mumkin bo'lgan eng muhim narsalardan biri hisoblanadi. Agar ko'p ingliz tilida yo'q bo'lsa, Agar onlayn va jamiyatda bepul darslari topishingiz mumkin. Siz yo'llarini uchun topishingiz mumkin onlayn ingliz tilini o'rganish yoki mahalliy hamjamiyat.

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, you can find free classes online and in your community. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

Yangi til o'rganish uchun eng yaxshi yo'llaridan biri unga o'zingizni va ko'p unga quloq iborat. tinglang va ko'p Agar iloji ingliz amaliyot uchun harakat qilib ko'ring. talaffuz, yoki to'g'ri so'zlarni aytib, Yangi til o'rganish eng qiyin qismlarga biri. Sizning ovoz va so'zlar sizga nazar ham ta'kidlash. Agar to'g'ri narsa deb, chunki Siz g'azablansa his mumkin, lekin amerikaliklar sizni tushuna olmaydi. Barcha amerikaliklar tashqi Urg'u uchun ishlatiladi emas.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.

sözsüz aloqa

Nonverbal communication

Biz boshqa odamlar bilan suhbat bo'lsa, Biz ikki jihatdan muloqot: og'zaki (so'zlarni yordamida) va nonverbally. Sözsüz aloqa biz bilan bog'lanish uchun bizning tana foydalanish yo'l degan ma'noni anglatadi. Bu o'z ichiga oladi:

When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

  • tabassumlar
  • qo'l harakatlari
  • ko'z bilan aloqa
  • holat (Biz asos yoki o'tirib qanday)
  • ovozli tovush
  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • eye contact
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice

Ba'zi odamlar tana tilida muloqot deymiz haqiqiy so'z ko'ra ko'proq muhim deb o'ylayman. Bu ular kabi va ishonch boshqalar bo'lsa, odamlar qaror beradi.

Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.

Turli madaniyatlar Sözsüz aloqa har xil turlaridan foydalanishi. Bu erda yo'llar ba'zi amerikaliklar sözsüz axborot vositalari foydalanish bor:

Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:

ko'z bilan aloqa

Eye contact

Eng amerikaliklar muhim suhbat davomida ko'z aloqani qilish. Agar ko'z aloqani qilmasangiz, Odamlar sizga yolg'on deb o'ylayman mumkin, yoki bir narsa noto'g'ri. Ko'zlariga bevosita nazar Odamlar ko'pincha ishonchliroqdirlar sifatida qaralgan, farosatli, va mehribon. Agar madaniyat kelgan bo'lsa qaerda, odamlar bir-birining ko'zlariga qarash emas, Siz nima uchun bu juda qiyin bo'lishi mumkin.

Most Americans make eye contact during important conversations. If you do not make eye contact, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. People who look directly into your eyes are often viewed as more trustworthy, intelligent, and kind. If you come from a culture where people do not look into each other’s eyes, this may be very hard for you to do.

jilmayib

Smiling

Amerikaliklar har bir narsani okay kim muloyim va bo'lish ko'rsatish uchun ko'p tabassum. Agar yangi birovni uchratsalar, Ular siz ularga tabassum bilan kutib.

Americans smile a lot to show to be polite and to who that everything is okay. When you meet someone new, they expect you to smile at them.

holat

Posture

Agar to'g'ri turish, agar, Odamlar sizga ko'proq hurmat berishga moyil.

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

tegish

Touch

Ular uchratsalar Eng amerikaliklar qo'llarini silkitardi. Ular allaqachon bir-biriga bilsangiz Ba'zan odamlar bir-biriga quchoqlay qiladi. Agar noqulay qo'l his bo'lsa, Agar qo'llarini silkitardi yo'q.

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

maydon

Space

AQShda, Odamlar yana bor “shaxsiy kosmik.” Agar kishi bilan gaplashib bo'lsangiz, bu degani, Ular, ehtimol, hech bo'lmaganda bir oyoq yuz sizdan asos bo'ladi.

In the USA, people have more “personal space.” This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

Dalillar

Arguments

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarida Odamlar uchun o'qitiladigan “turmoq” ularning e'tiqodlari uchun. kimdir sizga qo'shilmasa Bu degani, ular nuqtasini isbotlash uchun, sizlar bilan tortishishni mumkin. Agar qadrlaydi bir madaniyat kelgan bo'lsa, bu juda noqulay bo'lishi mumkin “yuzini tejash.” Ba'zi mamlakatlarda, argument olish siz yuzini yo'qotgan bo'lishi mumkin.

People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

Amerikaliklar g'azab yoki g'azotga chiqib emas, balki bahslasha, lekin ular to'g'ri iymon nima sizga ko'rsatish uchun. Bahslasharlar odatda suhbatning bir qismi sifatida qabul qilingan, Agar juda baland ovoz bilan gapirgan ekan, (baqiriq) yoki yomon yoki qo'pol til yordamida. Talabalar o'qituvchilar norozi qilish uchun da'vat ham ruxsat va. Bolalar o'z ota-onalari bilan bahslasha mumkin. Ishchilar o'z tanishlar bilan qo'shilmayman mumkin, lekin muloyimlik. ba'zan, ayniqsa, Amerika siyosatida, Odamlar hech narsa amalga mumkin, shunday qilib, ko'p bahslasha!

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

Agar argument noqulay his bo'lsa, Agar qulay bahslasharlar his yo'q, deb tushuntirish uchun okay bo'ladi. ammo, Agar ular norozi odamlar aytib o'rganish kerak bo'ladi yoki boshqa ular aytayotgan narsalarga siz rozi, deb o'ylashingiz mumkin.

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

xazil

Humor

Agar yangi madaniyatiga sozlash paytida juda qiyin bo'lishi mumkin aloqa biri qismi hazil emas. Siz odamlar atrofida tushunish emas, deb bir hazil qilish mumkin. Yoki kimdir Aql yo'q, deb bir hazil qilish mumkin. hazil madaniy, chunki, Ba'zan hazil tushunish bo'lsa ham, Agar u kulgili deb o'ylayman mumkin emas.

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

hazillar

Jokes

Ko'plab amerikaliklar hazillashishni kabi. ba'zan, hazillar kulgili bo'lishi mumkin va har bir kuladi. ba'zan, hazillar haqoratli bo'lishi mumkin. Masalan, kimdir irqi yoki jinsi asoslangan hazil aytish mumkin. Bu odamlar va hazillar siyosiy to'g'ri emas! kimdir sizni bezovta qilgan bir hazil desa, Agar xushmuomalalik Agar u hujumkor yoki hurmatsizlik topish aytish va sizga bunday har qanday ko'proq hazil aytish uchun emas, balki ularni so'rashingiz mumkin.

Many Americans like to tell jokes. Sometimes, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. Sometimes, jokes can be offensive. For example, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

satira

Satire

So'z erkinligi, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Konstitutsiyasi bilan himoyalangan. Shuni dastidan; shu sababdan, Amerika ommaviy axborot vositalari, boshqa mamlakatlarda odamlar haqida hazil emas mumkin narsalar haqida hazil qilish mumkin. Masalan, ba'zi AQSh gazetalari bor “xazil” Gazeta, - ular satirik yoki kulgili yangiliklari yozish, lekin haqiqiy emas. Masalan, AQSh satirik gazeta qog'oz chaqirdi Piyoz Shimoliy Koreya Prezidenti haqida hikoya yozgan. Ular u dunyodagi eng chiroyli odam deb topildi dedi. Shimoliy Koreya va Xitoyda ba'zi bir odamlar hikoya haqiqiy deb o'ylab. Lekin hikoya faqat bir hazil edi.

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Because of this, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. For example, there are some US newspapers that are “joke” newspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. For example, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

komediyalar

Comedies

AQShda, Ba'zi odamlar televidenieda hajvlarda tomosha qilish uchun yoqadi. Ular, shuningdek, televidenie yoki teatr va klublari professional qiziqchilar tomosha qilish uchun yoqishi mumkin. ba'zan, Amerika komediyalar va Qiziqchilar haqoratli bo'lishi mumkin.

In the USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Sometimes, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

Hazillar

Pranks

Ba'zi amerikaliklar bir-biriga aldash uchun yoqadi. Amerikada, Aprel Fools deb nomlangan bayram bor’ kun. Bu aprel oyining birinchi kunida bo'ladi. Shu kuni, ko'p odamlar fokuslar o'ynash uchun harakat qilish kabi. Masalan, ish kimdir siz u emas bir narsa haqdir iymon qilish mumkin. Odamlar bu hazil qo'ng'iroq “Hazillar” yoki “Sizning oyog'ini tortib.”

Some Americans like to trick each other. In America, there is a holiday called April Fools’ Day. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. For example, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokes “pranks” or “pulling your leg.”

Shartnomalar va bitimlar

Contracts and agreements

AQShda, yozilgan shartnomalar va og'zaki kelishuvlar muhim bo'lgan.

In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

Bitimlar odatda og'zaki bo'ladi. Masalan, kimdir biror narsa qilish so'raydi mumkin va siz ha deb, yoki yo'q,. Bu bitim. Amerikada, og'zaki bitimlar odatda juda jiddiy qabul qilingan. ba'zan, Agar og'zaki kelishuvga qilganingizda, siz ham qo'l berib mumkin. qo'l berib siz ikkala shartnomani bajarish uchun boryapmiz ramzidir.

Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.

og'zaki bitimlar bilan bir muammo, ba'zan odamlar noto'g'ri tushunmoq mumkin, deb hisoblanadi. Masalan, Agar ularni kutib qiladi kishi bilan og'zaki kelishuvga qilish mumkin 5 pm O'sha kuni. lekin, balki ular noto'g'ri talqin va keyingi kun degan ma'noni o'yladi.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.

Agar biror narsa rozi bo'lsa, Agar yo bu shartnomani bajarish yoki siz ularni siz bitimni bajarish mumkin emas xabar bering, amerikaliklar uchun muhim ahamiyatga ega. Bu ham kichik bir narsa uchun haq. Masalan, kimdir sizga so'rasa tushlik va ha aytish, yoki tushlik uchun borish kerak yoki ularni qo'ng'iroq va tushlik uchun vaqt oldin sizlar bora olmaysizlar aytib kerak.

If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

Shartnomalar qanday ikki davlat shartnomalar yozilgan (yoki undan ko'p) Odamlar rozi. Agar kvartirasiga ko'chib qachon bir ijara imzo. Agar ishini boshlash, Agar mehnat shartnomasini qabul qilishingiz mumkin. Agar kreditga mashina sotib olish bo'lsa, Agar kredit shartnomasini imzolash mumkin. Bularning barchasi sözleşmelerdir.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

Agar shartnoma imzo bo'lsa, Agar, ehtimol, bu shartnoma bajarish uchun huquqiy shart. Bas, u sizga diqqat bilan o'qib juda muhimdir. shartnoma ingliz tilida bo'lsa, Agar uni tarjima yordam so'rash mumkin. oddiy shartnoma uchun, Agar do'st so'rashingiz mumkin yoki mumkin bizga elektron pochta va biz sizga shartnoma tushunishga yordam berishga harakat qiladi. u pul taalluqli bo'lsa, ish, yoki yuridik xizmatlar, Agar professional tarjimon foydalanish yoki maslahat uchun caseworker so'rashlari mumkin.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

emas, balki haqiqat - bu Amerika madaniyati haqida umumlashma bor, amerikalik siz uchun ishlatiladi nima uchun boshqacha yo'l vazifasini bajaruvchi mumkin nega faqat g'oyalar yaxshiroq tushunishga yordam uchun. Amerika yo'llari va madaniyat boshqa yo'llar ko'ra emas, balki yaxshi yoki yomon bo'ladi - boshqacha faqat.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

Ko'proq ma'lumot olish

Learn more

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