Isgaarsiinta ee USA

Ingiriisi sidoo kaleNo Ingiriisi

Communication waa sida aan u wadaagno macluumaadka iyo fikradaha dadka kale. Waxaan sidaas u sameynaa by hadlaya, by qoraal ah, iyo xataa annagoo gacmahayaga, wejigaaga, iyo hay'adaha. In dal cusub, waxaan u baahan nahay si ay u bartaan habab cusub oo xidhiidhka. Halkan waxaa ku qoran qaar ka mid ah talooyin si ay kaaga caawiso isgaadhsiin ee USA.

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and bodies. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

 

 

communication between cultures

communication between cultures

Inta lagu jiro bilood ee ugu horeysay ee USA aad, waxaa jiri doona marar badan marka aadan fahmin dadka iyo xaaladaha. Tani waa mid aad u adag, laakiin sidoo kale waa caadi. ma isku dayaan in ay la niyad jabin! Isgaarsiinta fiicnaan doontaa waqti. Waxaad heli doontaa used dhaqanka cusub oo ay bilaabaan in ay fahmaan luuqadda.

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

Language

Language

Markii aad timaado dal cusub, ma uu garanaynin afka ka dhigaysa wax walba oo adag. Halkan waxaa ku qoran qaar ka mid ah wax wanaagsan in la ogaado oo ku saabsan xidhiidhka Maraykanka.

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

Isfahamdarrada

Misunderstandings

Inta lagu jiro dhowrkii bilood ee ugu horreysa aad ku sugan tahay Maraykanka, laga yaabaa inaad fahmi doonaa waxyaabo badan oo. Tani waa caadi oo ma adiga qaladkaaga. Isku day inaad aad ugu fiican inay wax wanaagsan - haddii uu qof u muuqataa qallafsan ama macnaheedu, xusuusinayaa in waxa laga yaabaa sababtoo ah kala duwanaansho dhaqameed. Ha u qaadan inay yihiin qof xun ama fiicnayn.

During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

Haddii aadan fahmin wax ay kugu yidhi, weydii qofka inuu ku celiyo waxa ay sheegay in. Ama weydii inay ka badan si fudud mar kale ku odhan. Ha ka baqin inaad xajisaan weydiinaya.

If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.

mawduucyada xasaasiga ah

Sensitive topics

Dad badan oo Maraykan ah oo xasaasi ah oo ku saabsan maadooyinka qaarkood. Tusaale ahaan:

Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:

Waxaa laga yaabaa inay “siyaasad sax ah.” In hab siyaasad sax ah oo isku dayaya in aan wax in xumayn maayo koox gaar ah oo dad ah. Tusaale ahaan, badan oo Maraykan ah ma u dulqaadan kaftanka cunsuri ama xaqiraad. sax Tani waxay ka caawisaa in la abuuro bulsho loo dhan yahay. Laakiin waxay taasi keeni doontaa dhibaato haddii kuwa kale ay yihiin ixtiraam.

They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

Dadka Maraykanka badidoodu ma jecla in ay ka hadlaan ay miisaanka, da'dooda, ama inta lacag ee ay sameeyaan. Haddii aad wax ku saabsan qof miisaan, sida jir ay yihiin, ama sida hodan yihiin ama faqiir ay yihiin, waxay u dhawdahay inay xanaaqsan.

Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.

Dadka ayaa sidoo kale laga yaabaa in aan doonayaa in aan kuu sheego meesha ay u socdaan ama ay ku nool yihiin. Haddii aad weydiiso qof, “Xaggee baad u socotaa?” waxay u malayn kartaa inaad leedahay ujeeddo xun.

People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.

Waxaa jira qaar ka mid ah mawduucyo si sahlan in ay ka hadlaan oo aan dhibaato isgaarsiinta a. meelaha la wadaago dhaqamada kala duwan yihiin carruurta iyo isboortiga. Haddii aad haysato waqti adag la hadasho qof, ka hadlaan mawduucyadan!

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!

hadal Small

Small talk

Dadka Maraykanka badidoodu hadli doonaa “hadal yar” aad la. Waxay ku weydiin doonaan sidee tahay ama la hadal ku saabsan cimilada. Tani waxaa loo arkaa edeb. Haddii qof, “Sidee tahay?” qofka kale had iyo jeer sheegay,”Good,” “Fine,” ama “OK,” xataa haddii uu isagu ama iyadu waa murugo ama xanuunsan.

Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.

Farxin iyo aad ugu mahad naqayaa

Please and thank you

In USA, dadka ku odhan “fadlan” marka ay weydiiso wax iyo “mahadsanid” marka ay wax hesho ama qof ka caawineysaa. Americans u muuqdaan in ay mahad dadka kale xataa wax yar. Haddii qof heysta albaab furan kuu, waa edeb u mahadcelinayaa. Haddii uu qof ku siinayaa hadiyad, waa in aad sidoo kale idinku mahadnaqayaa.

In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.

Luqadda Ingiriiska luqadda labaad

English as a second language

Learning English waa mid ka mid ah waxyaabaha ugu muhiimsan ee aad samayn karto si ay kaaga caawiyaan inaad la qabsato nolosha Maraykanka. Haddii aadan ku hadli karin Ingriiska, waxaad ka heli kartaa fasalada free online iyo bulshadaada. Waxaad ka heli kartaa siyaabo in bartaan Ingiriisi online ama in bulshada degaanka.

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, you can find free classes online and in your community. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

Mid ka mid ah hababka ugu fiican ee si aad u barato luqad cusub waa in aad naftaada quusin ku sugan iyo in ay maqlaan in badan oo. Isku day inaad dhagaysato oo aad ku dhaqmaan Ingiriisi sida ugu badan ee aad awoodid. ku dhawaaqida, ama isagoo leh wax sax ah, waa mid ka mid ah qaybaha ugu adag ee barashada luqad cusub. Your midab iyo ereyada sidoo kale aad tilmaami arrinta. laga yaabaa in aad dareento wareer, sababtoo ah waxaad leedahay wax sax ah, laakiin ma Americans aad fahmi karto. Ma aha oo dhan Maraykanka waxaa loo isticmaalaa in Lahjadda shisheeye.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.

isgaarsiinta Nonverbal

Nonverbal communication

Marka aynu nahay in wada hadalka dadka kale, waxaan xiriiro laba siyaabood oo muhiim ah: hadal (isticmaalaya erayo) iyo nonverbally. isgaarsiinta Nonverbal ka dhigan tahay sida aan u jidhkeenna isticmaalnaa gudbinta. Waxaa ka mid ah:

When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

  • wajiga
  • eegga gacanta
  • isha xiriir
  • Dhehana (sidee baynu u taagnaanaynaa ama ku fadhiisan)
  • naaxiyadda codka
  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • eye contact
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice

dadka qaar ayaa u malaynaya isgaarsiinta odhaah ka muhiimsan yahay erayada dhabta ah aynu nidhaahno. Waxay ka caawisaa dadka go'aansato haddii ay jecel yihiin iyo kuwa kale oo isku halleeya.

Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.

dhaqamada kala duwan u isticmaalaan noocyada kala duwan ee isgaarsiinta odhaah. Halkan waxaa ku qoran qaar ka mid ah siyaabaha Americans isticmaalaan isgaarsiinta odhaah:

Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:

xiriir Eye

Eye contact

Dadka Maraykanka badidoodu xidhiidh indho marka aad wada hadalka muhiim ah. Haddii aadan dhigi xiriirka indhaha, dadka waxay u maleynayaan inaad been ama wax qaldan yihiin. Dadka si toos ah eegto indhahaaga waxaa inta badan u arkaan sida lagu kalsoonaan karo oo dheeraad ah, caaqil, iyo nooca. Haddii aad ka dhaqan yimaadaan halkaas oo ay dadku ma fiirin galay indhaha kasta oo kale ee, waxaase laga yaabaa in aad u adag tahay in aad samayso.

Most Americans make eye contact during important conversations. If you do not make eye contact, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. People who look directly into your eyes are often viewed as more trustworthy, intelligent, and kind. If you come from a culture where people do not look into each other’s eyes, this may be very hard for you to do.

dhoola

Smiling

Americans ilka badan si ay u muujiyaan in ay edeb iyo kuwa wax walba waa okay. Marka aad la kulanto qof cusub, ay ka filayaan in aad iftiimisid iyaga at.

Americans smile a lot to show to be polite and to who that everything is okay. When you meet someone new, they expect you to smile at them.

Dhehana

Posture

Haddii aad si toos ah u istaagaan, dadka u muuqdaan in ay ku siin ixtiraam dheeraad ah.

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

taabta

Touch

Dadka Maraykanka badidoodu gacan qaado marka ay ku kulmaan. Mararka qaarkood dadka aaddey doonaa mid kasta oo kale oo haddii ay mar horeba is aqoon. Haddii aad dareento gacmaha ruxaya raaxo, Qasab ma aha in aad gacan.

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

Space

Space

In USA, dadka ka sii “meel gaarka ah.” Taas macnaheedu waxa weeye haddii aad la hadasho qof, waxay u badan tahay istaagi doonaa ugu yaraan cagta ah oo kaa Jeedsan.

In the USA, people have more “personal space.” This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

Xujooyin

Arguments

Dadka oo dalka Mareykanka ah waxaa la baraa in “istaag” waayo, waxay aaminsan yihiin. Taas macnaheedu waxa weeye haddii qof diidan in aad la, Waxaa laga yaabaa in ay idin kula doodaan in ay isku dayaan si ay u caddeeyaan dhibic. Tani waxay noqon kartaa mid aad u raaxo haddii aad ka dhaqan in la qiimeeyo iman “badbaadinta wajiga.” Wadamada qaarkood, is geliyey muran macnaheedu waxaa laga yaabaa inaad wajiga ayaa laga badiyay.

People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

Americans ka Doodin baxay oo xanaaq ah ama si ay ula dagaalamaan, laakiin si aan idiin tuso sababta ay u aamminsan ay sax yihiin. Murankii waxaa guud ahaan la aqbalay oo qayb ka ah wadahadalka, haddii aad ku hadla aad u qaylo (qeyliyo) ama isticmaalka luqad xun ama edeb. Ardayda waxaa loo ogol yahay iyo xataa lagu dhiirigelinayaa in ay khilaafsan tahay macalimiinta. Carruurta waxaa laga yaabaa in waalidka ay ku doodayaan. Shaqaalaha raacsanayn karaan madaxda ay, laakiin edeb leh. Mararka qaarkood, gaar ahaan siyaasadda American, dadka ku doodi aad u badan in aan waxba la isu samayn karaa!

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

Haddii aad dareento raaxo in muran, caadi tahay si ay u sharxaan in aad dareento raaxo Murankii. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, Waxaa laga yaabaa in aad u baahan tahay si ay u bartaan si ay dadka oo aad iyaga la diiddan tahay sheeg haddii kale ay la tahay laga yaabo in aad raacsan tahay wixii ay ku odhan.

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

kaftanka

Humor

Mid ka mid ah qayb ka mid ah isgaarsiinta in uu noqon karaa mid aad u adag marka aad la qabsado dhaqanka cusub waa kaftan. laga yaabaa kaftan ah in dadka ku nool fahmi weydo inaad u samaysaa. Ama qof kaftan in aad fahmi weydo dhigo. Tan iyo kaftan waa dhaqanka, mararka qaar xitaa haddii aad fahmi kaftan ah, waxaad laga yaabaa in aan u maleyso inay tahay funny.

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

kaftan

Jokes

Dad badan oo Maraykan jeclahay in aan u sheego kaftanka. Mararka qaarkood, kaftanka noqon kartaa funny iyo qof kasta oo ku qoslaa. Mararka qaarkood, kaftanka noqon kartaa weerar. Tusaale ahaan, laga yaabaa in qof kaftan sheegi ku salaysan jinsiyad ama jinsiga. Dadkani iyo kaftanka ma aha siyaasad sax ah! Haddii qof kaftan ah in aad dulmiyaan sheegayaa, aad si edeb leh u odhan kartaa in aad u arkaan in ay weerar ama ixtiraam iyo iyaga ma weydiisan inuu kuu sheego wax kaftanka badan oo noocaas ah.

Many Americans like to tell jokes. Sometimes, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. Sometimes, jokes can be offensive. For example, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

Maadeys

Satire

Xoriyadda hadalka waxaa ilaalinaya dastuurka Maraykanka. Taas aawadeed, warbaahinta Maraykanka ka dhigi kara kaftanka ku saabsan waxyaabo laga yaabo in dadka ku nool wadamada kale ee aan qoslay ku saabsan. Tusaale ahaan, waxaa jira qaar ka mid ah wargeysyada dalka Maraykanka in ay yihiin “kaftan” wargeysyada - oo ay qoraan news in uu yahay garneel ama funny, laakiin run ma. Tusaale ahaan, waraaqaha wargeyska garneel a US loo yaqaan basasha qoray sheeko ku saabsan Madaxweynaha North Korea. Waxay sheegay in uu u codeeyay ninka ugu qurxoon adduunka. Dadka qaarkood ee North Korea iyo China u maleeyeen sheeko run buu ahaa. Laakiin sheekada ahaa kaliya kaftan ah.

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Because of this, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. For example, there are some US newspapers that are “joke” newspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. For example, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

majaajilooyin

Comedies

In USA, dadka qaar waxay jecel yihiin inay daawadaan telefishanka majaajilooyin. Waxa kale oo ay jecel yihiin oo laga yaabo in ay daawadaan majaajilaystayaal xirfadeed on TV ama in tiyaatarada iyo kooxaha. Mararka qaarkood, majaajilooyin American iyo majaajilaystayaal noqon kartaa weerar.

In the USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Sometimes, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

dheel dheel ah

Pranks

Americans qaarkood waxay jecel yihiin in ay midba midka kale trick. In America, waxaa jira fasaxa ah oo lagu magacaabo April Nacasyadu’ Day. Waa maalintii ugu horeysay ee April. On maanta, dad badan oo jecel yihiin in ay isku dayaan in ay ciyaari tricks. Tusaale ahaan, qof shaqada ka dhigo mid aad aaminsan tahay wax run yahay marka ma aha. Dadka wac kaftanka kuwan “dheel dheel ah” ama “jiidaya lugtaada.”

Some Americans like to trick each other. In America, there is a holiday called April Fools’ Day. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. For example, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokes “pranks” or “pulling your leg.”

Qandaraasyada iyo heshiisyada

Contracts and agreements

In Maraykanka, heshiiska ku qoran oo heshiis afka ah waa muhiim.

In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

Heshiisyada waa caadi afka ah. Tusaale ahaan, qofka ayaa laga yaabaa inuu ku weydiiyo inaad wax ka qaban oo idinku waxaad odhan haa ama maya. Tani waa heshiis. In America, heshiis afka ah waxaa guud ahaan loo qaaday si aad u daran. Mararka qaarkood, marka aad heshiis afka ah, Waxa kale oo laga yaabaa in aad gacan. Salaanta gacmaha waxa ay calaamad u yihiin in aad labada socday si ay u gutaan heshiiska.

Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.

Mid ka mid ah dhibaatada la heshiis afka ah waa in mararka qaar dadka fahmi kara. Tusaale ahaan, laga yaabaa inaad heshiis afka ah la qof in aad iyaga ka hor tago doonaa 5 maalintaas pm. Laakiin, waxaa laga yaabaa in ay fahmay oo u maleeyey in aad loogu talagalay maalinta ku xigta.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.

Haddii aad ogolaato inaad wax, waxaa muhiim ah in Americans in aad sidoo kale soo dhalaasho heshiiskii in ama in aad ha ogaadeen ma waxaad buuxin kartaa heshiiska. Tani waa run xitaa wax yar. Tusaale ahaan, haddii qof aad weydiiyo in ay qadada oo idinku waxaad odhan haa, waa in aad sidoo kale u tag qadada ama waa in aad iyaga ugu yeedho oo u sheeg ma aad iman kartaa ka hor, waa wakhti loogu talagalay qadada.

If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

Heshiiska waxaa heshiisyo sheeg waxa ku qoran laba (ama ka badan) dadka ku heshiiyaan in ay. Marka aad u guurto guri aad saxiixdo heshiiska kirada. Marka aad bilowdo shaqo, Waxaa laga yaabaa in aad hesho heshiiska shaqada. Haddii aad soo iibsato baabuur on credit, laga yaabaa in aad saxiixdo heshiis amaah ah. Dhamaan kuwani waa qandaraasyo.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

Haddii aad saxiixdo heshiis, aad u badan tahay waajib sharci ah si ay u gutaan heshiis in. Sidaas darteed waa mid aad u muhiim ah in aad si taxadar leh u akhri. Haddii heshiiska waa in English, laga yaabaa in aad rabto in aad weydiiso caawimaad u tarjumida. Wixii heshiis fudud, waxaad weydiisan kartaa saaxiib ama aad awoodid email noogu oo waxaan isku dayi doonaa inuu kaa caawiyo inaad fahamto heshiiska. Haddii ay ku saabsan tahay lacag, shaqada, ama adeegyada sharciga, laga yaabaa in aad rabto in aad isticmaasho turjumaan xirfadle ama weydii shaqaalahaaga bulshada talo.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

Kuwanu waa isku qaadyo ku saabsan dhaqanka American - ma xaqiiqooyin, fikradaha kaliya inuu kaa caawiyo inaad si fiican u fahmaan sababta American ah oo laga yaabaa in lagu simaha hab ka duwan waxa aad loo isticmaalaa in lagu. siyaabo American iyo dhaqanka ma ka fiican ama ka xun yihiin siyaabo kale - oo kaliya oo kala duwan.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

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