امریکہ میں مواصلات

انگریزیکوئی انگریزی

ابلاغ ہے کس طرح ہم معلومات اور نظریات دوسرے لوگوں کے ساتھ اشتراک کرتے ہیں. ہم یہ کرتے ہیں کی طرف سے بات کرتے ہوئے, لکھ کر, اور اپنے ہاتھوں کے ساتھ بھی, چہرہ, and bodies. کسی نئے ملک میں, ہم نے بات چیت کے نئے طریقوں کو جاننے کی ضرورت ہے. یہاں آپ امریکہ میں بات چیت کرنے میں مدد کے لیے کچھ تجاویز ہیں.

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and bodies. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

 

 

communication between cultures

communication between cultures

آپ پہلے ماہ کے دوران امریکہ میں, ہوں گے کئی بار جب آپ لوگوں اور حالات سمجھ میں نہیں. یہ بہت مشکل ہے, لیکن یہ بھی عام بات ہے. حوصلہ شکنی نہیں ہو کرنے کی کوشش کریں! مواصلات کے وقت کے ساتھ ساتھ بہتر ہو جائے گی. آپ نئی ثقافت میں استعمال کرنے اور زبان کو سمجھنے کے لئے شروع کریں گے.

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

زبان

Language

جب آپ کسی نئے ملک میں پہنچیں, زبان جاننے والا نہیں سب کچھ مشکل ہے. یہاں امریکیوں کے ساتھ بات چیت کے بارے میں جاننے کے کچھ مفید باتیں ہیں.

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

غلط فہمیاں

Misunderstandings

کئی مہینوں کے دوران آپ امریکہ میں ہیں, آپ شاید بہت سے چیزوں کے غلط کرے گا. اس پر عام اور تمہارا قصور نہیں کیا گیا ہے ۔. کسی بدتمیز یا مطلب ظاہر ہوتا ہے اگر مثبت – ہو کے لئے آپ کی بہترین کوشش کریں, اپنے آپ کو یاد دلائیں کہ یہ ایک ثقافتی اختلافات کی وجہ سے ہو سکتا ہے. وہ برا یا بدتمیز شخص فرض کرتے ہیں کہ نہیں.

During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

اگر آپ ایسی چیز ہے جو آپ کے لئے کہا جاتا ہے کی سمجھ نہيں آرہی, کیا انہوں نے کہا کہ دہرانے کے لیے اس شخص سے پوچھیں. یا ان کے اس کہنے کے لئے دوبارہ پوچھ بس. پوچھ رکھنے سے خوفزدہ نہیں ہوں.

If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.

حساس موضوعات

Sensitive topics

بہت سے امریکیوں کو بعض موضوعات کے بارے میں حساس ہیں. مثال کے طور:

Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:

وہ ہو سکتا ہے “سیاسی طور پر درست ہے ۔” رہا سیاسی طور پر درست یعنی چیزیں جو ایک خاص گروہ کی ناراضگی جائے گی کہیں نہ کرنے کی کوشش. مثال کے طور, بہت سے امریکی نسل پرست یا صنفی لطائف کو برداشت نہیں. اس صداقت ایک معاشرہ تخلیق کرنے میں مدد ملتی ہے. لیکن اگر دوسروں کو عدم ہیں یہ اذيت كا باعث ہو.

They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

بیشتر امریکی ان کے وزن کے بارے میں بات کرنا پسند نہیں, ان کی عمر, یا وہ کس طرح زیادہ سے زیادہ پیسہ بنا. اگر آپ کسی شخص کا وزن کے بارے میں کچھ کہنا, وہ کس طرح پرانے ہیں, یا وہ ہیں کہ امیر ہو یا غریب, وہ پریشان ہو سکتا ہے.

Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.

لوگ بھی جہاں وہ جا رہے ہیں یا جہاں وہ رہتے ہیں آپ کو بتا نہیں کرنا چاہتی ہے. اگر آپ کسی ایسے شخص سے پوچھیں, “آپ کہاں جا رہا ہے?” وہ آپ کی بری نیت لگتا ہے کر سکتے ہیں.

People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.

جن کے بارے میں مواصلت میں ایک مسئلہ کے بغیر بات کرنے کے لئے آسان ہیں کچھ موضوعات ہیں ۔. عام علاقوں ثقافتوں بھر بچوں اور کھیل ہیں. اگر آپ کسی سے بات چیت کرتے ہوئے ایک مشکل وقت درپیش ہیں تو, ان موضوعات کے بارے میں بات کرتے ہیں!

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!

چھوٹے ٹاک

Small talk

سب سے زیادہ امریکیوں سے بات کرے گا “چھوٹے ٹاک” آپ کے ساتھ. وہ کس طرح آپ ہیں یا موسم کے بارے میں بات پوچھیں گے. یہ شائستہ سمجھا جاتا ہے ۔. اگر کسی شخص کا کہنا ہے کہ, “آپ کيسے ہيں?” تقریباً ہمیشہ دوسرے شخص کا کہنا ہے کہ,”اچھا,” “فائن,” یا “ٹھيک ہے,” یہاں تک کہ اگر وہ اداس یا کچھ بیمار ہے.

Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.

کریں اور آپ کا شکریہ

Please and thank you

امریکہ میں, لوگ کہتے ہیں کہ “براہ مہربانی” جب وہ پوچھنے کے لئے کچھ اور “شکريا” جب وہ کسی چیز یا کسی شخص ملے ان کی مدد کرتا ہے. امریکی دوسروں کے لئے بھی چھوٹی چیزیں کا شکریہ ادا کرتے ہیں. اگر کوئی شخص ایک دروازہ کھلا آپ کے لئے رکھتا ہے, یہ آپ کا شکریہ کہنا شائستہ ہے. اگر کوئی شخص آپ کو ایک تحفہ دیتا ہے, آپ بھی آپ کا شکریہ کہنا چاہیے.

In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.

انگریزی بطور ثانوی زبان

English as a second language

ہمارے بارے میں آپ کو آپ کو ایڈجسٹ امریکہ میں زندگی کرنے میں مدد کر سکتے ہیں جو سب سے اہم چیز ہے ۔. اگر آپ زیادہ سے زیادہ انگریزی نہیں بولتے ہیں, آپ مفت کلاسوں کو آن لائن اور آپ کی کمیونٹی میں تلاش کر سکتے ہیں. آپ کرنے کے طریقے تلاش کر سکتے ہیں آن لائن انگریزی سیکھنے یا میں آپ کی مقامی کمیونٹی.

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, you can find free classes online and in your community. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

ایک نئی زبان سیکھنے کے لئے بہترین طریقوں میں سے ایک پر اپنے آپ کو اس میں غرق کرنے کے لیے اور اس کے لئے بہت کچھ سننے کے لئے کیا گیا ہے ۔. سنیں اور جتنا آپ کر سکتے ہیں انگریزی کی مشق کرنے کی کوشش کریں. تلفظ, یا صحیح طور پر ایسی باتیں کہتا, ایک نئی زبان سیکھنے کی مشکل ترین حصوں میں سے ایک ہے. اپنا لہجہ اور جو آپ کی باتیں بھی معاملے پر زور دیتے ہیں. آپ کچھ صحیح کہہ رہے ہیں کیونکہ آپ مایوس محسوس ہو سکتا ہے, لیکن امریکیوں نے آپ کو سمجھ نہیں سکتے. غیر ملکی کے لیے استعمال تلفظ نہیں تمام امریکی ہیں.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.

نونوربال ابلاغ

Nonverbal communication

جب ہم دوسرے لوگوں کے ساتھ بات چیت میں ہیں, ہم دو اہم طریقوں میں بات چیت: زبانی (الفاظ کا استعمال کرتے ہوئے) اور نونوربالل. ہم بات چیت کے لئے ہمارے جسم استعمال کرتا نونوربال ابلاغ کا مطلب ہے. یہ بھی شامل ہے:

When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

  • چہرے کا اظہار
  • ہاتھ کے اشارے
  • آنکھ رابطہ
  • طرز (کس طرح ہم کھڑے ہوں یا بیٹھ کر)
  • آواز کی ٹون
  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • eye contact
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice

کچھ لوگ لگتا نونوربال ابلاغ ہم کا کہنا ہے کہ اصل الفاظ سے زیادہ اہم ہے. یہ لوگوں کی مدد کرتا ہے تو وہ پسند اور دوسروں پر بھروسہ کا فیصلہ.

Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.

مختلف ثقافتوں نونوربال ابلاغ کی مختلف اقسام استعمال کریں. امریکی نونوربال مواصلت استعمال کے طریقوں میں سے کچھ یہاں ہیں:

Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:

آنکھ رابطہ

Eye contact

زیادہ تر امریکی آنکھ رابطہ اہم مباحث کے دوران بنانے کی ضرورت. اگر آپ آنکھ رابطہ نہ کرو, لوگ سوچتے ہیں آپ جھوٹ بول رہے ہیں یا کچھ غلط ہے. براہ راست آپ کی آنکھوں میں دیکھو لوگ اکثر طور پر زیادہ ثقہ دیکھے ہیں, ذہین, اور قسم. اگر آپ ایک ثقافت سے جہاں لوگ ایک دوسرے کی آنکھوں میں نظر نہ آئے, یہ آپ کے لئے کیا کرنا بہت مشکل ہو سکتا ہے.

Most Americans make eye contact during important conversations. If you do not make eye contact, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. People who look directly into your eyes are often viewed as more trustworthy, intelligent, and kind. If you come from a culture where people do not look into each other’s eyes, this may be very hard for you to do.

مسکراتے

Smiling

امریکیوں کو خوش اخلاقی کا مظاہرہ دکھانے کے لئے ایک بہت مسکراہٹ اور کے لئے جو کہ سب کچھ ٹھیک ہے. جب آپ کسی نئے سے ملیں, وہ آپ ان پر مسکراہٹ کی توقع.

Americans smile a lot to show to be polite and to who that everything is okay. When you meet someone new, they expect you to smile at them.

Posture

Posture

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

Touch

Touch

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

جگہ

Space

امریکہ میں, people have morepersonal space.This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

In the USA, people have more “personal space.” This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

Arguments

Arguments

People in the United States are taught tostand upfor their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that valuessaving face.In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. کبھی کبھی, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. تاہم, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

Humor

Humor

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

Jokes

Jokes

Many Americans like to tell jokes. کبھی کبھی, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. کبھی کبھی, jokes can be offensive. مثال کے طور, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

Many Americans like to tell jokes. Sometimes, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. Sometimes, jokes can be offensive. For example, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

Satire

Satire

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. اس کی وجہ سے, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. مثال کے طور, there are some US newspapers that arejokenewspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. مثال کے طور, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Because of this, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. For example, there are some US newspapers that are “joke” newspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. For example, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

Comedies

Comedies

امریکہ میں, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. کبھی کبھی, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

In the USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Sometimes, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

Pranks

Pranks

Some Americans like to trick each other. امریکہ میں, there is a holiday called April FoolsDay. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. مثال کے طور, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokespranks” یا “اپنی ٹانگ ھیچ ۔”

Some Americans like to trick each other. In America, there is a holiday called April Fools’ Day. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. For example, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokes “pranks” or “pulling your leg.”

معاہدوں اور سمجھوتوں

Contracts and agreements

امریکہ میں, معاہدوں کے تحریری اور زبانی معاہدوں اہم ہیں ۔.

In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

عام طور پر زبانی معاہدے کئے جاتے ہیں. مثال کے طور, کوئی شخص کوئی کام کرنا اور تم ہاں یا نہ کہہ سکتے ہیں. یہ ایک معاہدہ ہوا ۔. امریکہ میں, زبانی معاہدے عام طور پر بہت سنجیدگی سے لے جایا جاتا ہے. کبھی کبھی, جب آپ ایک زبانی معاہدہ کر, آپ کو بھی ہاتھ ہلا کر سکتے ہیں. مصافحہ ایک علامت ہے کہ آپ دونوں اس معاہدے کو پورا کرنا ہے.

Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.

بعض اوقات لوگ یہ ٹھیک کر سکتے ہیں کہ زبانی معاہدوں کے ساتھ ایک مسئلہ ہے. مثال کے طور, آپ کسی ایسے شخص کو جو آپ کو ان پر پورا کرے گا کے ساتھ ایک زبانی معاہدہ کر سکتے ہیں 5 ص اس دن. مگر، لیکن, ہو سکتا ہے کہ وہ غلط فہمیوں کا شکار اور سوچا کہ آپ کو اگلے دن کا مقصد.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.

اگر آپ کے لئے کچھ اتفاق کرتا ہوں, یہ کہ آپ یا تو اس معاہدے کو پورا یا ان کو آپ جانتے ہیں کہ دے معاہدے کو مکمل نہیں کر سکتا کے امریکیوں کے لئے ضروری ہے. This is true even for something small. مثال کے طور, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (یا اس سے زیادہ) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can ہمیں ای میل کریں and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, کام, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

یہ امریکی ثقافت – نہیں حقائق کے بارے میں یہی ہیں, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

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