沟通是我们与他人分享信息和想法的方式. 我们通过说话来做到这一点, 通过写作, 甚至用我们的手, 脸, 和身体. 在一个新的国家, 我们需要学习新的沟通方式. 这里有一些提示, 以帮助您在美国沟通.
Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and bodies. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.
在你在美国的头几个月, 会有很多次, 当你不明白的人和情况. 这是很困难的, 但这也是正常的. 尽量不要气馁! 随着时间的推移, 沟通会越来越好. 你会习惯新的文化, 开始理解这种语言.
During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.
当你到达一个新的国家, 不懂语言会使一切变得困难. 以下是一些与美国人交流的有用的知识.
When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.
在前几个月期间，你是在美国, 你可能会误解很多东西. 这是正常的不是你的错. 尽你最大要积极 — — 如果有人出现粗鲁或平均, 提醒自己, 这可能是因为文化上的差异. 不要以为他们是坏人或粗鲁的人.
During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.
如果你不明白什么对你说, 问的人重复他们说的话. 或又问他们说它更多只是. 不要害怕继续问.
If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.
Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:
• 他们可能是 “政治正确。” 政治上正确意味着尽量不说会冒犯特定人群的事情. 举个例子, 许多美国人不容忍种族主义或性别歧视的笑话. 这正确性有助于创建一个包容性社会. 但如果别人不尊重别人, 就会造成问题 ".
• They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.
• 大多数美国人不喜欢谈论自己的体重, 他们的年龄, 或他们挣多少钱. 如果你说一些关于有人 ’ s 重量, 他们是如何老, 或怎么富人或穷人，他们是, 他们可能不高兴.
• Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.
• 人们也可能不想要告诉你，他们要去哪里或他们住在哪里. 如果你问别人, “你要去哪里?” 他们可能认为你有一个坏的意向.
• People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.
有一些话题在没有沟通问题的情况下更容易谈论. 跨文化的共同领域是儿童和体育. 如果你有硬时间与某人交谈, 谈论这些话题!
There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!
大多数美国人会说 “小谈” 和你一起. 他们会问如何或谈论天气. 这被认为是有礼貌的. 如果有人说, “你好吗?” 另一个人几乎总是说,”好,” “罚款,” 或 “还行,” 即使他或她是伤心或不适.
Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.
Please and thank you
在美国, 人们说 “请” 当他们问的东西， “谢谢” 当他们收到某物或某人帮助他们. 美国人倾向于感谢别人甚至对一些小事情. 如果某人持有一扇门为你打开, 它是礼貌地说声谢谢. 如果有人给你一份礼物, 你也应该说谢谢你.
In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.
English as a second language
学习一门新语言的最好方法之一就是沉浸在其中, 经常听. 试着练习英语，你可以尽可能多地听. 发音, 或说正确的事情, 是学习一门新语言的最困难部分之一. 你的语气和哪些单词你还强调事项. 你可能会感到沮丧，因为你说的东西正确, 但美国人不能理解你. 并不是所有美国人都习惯外国口音.
One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.
当我们是在与其他人交谈, 我们沟通的两种重要方式: 口头 (使用单词) 和非口头. 非语言交流是指我们用身体进行交流的方式. 它包括:
When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:
- 姿势 (我们如何站立或坐)
- facial expressions
- hand gestures
- eye contact
- posture (how we stand or sit)
- tone of voice
Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.
Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:
在美国人们学习 “站起来” 因为他们的信仰. 这意味着，如果有人和你意见不同, 他们可能由于你，试图证明他们的观点和争论. 这可以是很不舒服，如果你来自一个文化的价值观 “挽回面子。” 在一些国家中, 进入参数可能意味着你已经丢了脸.
People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.
美国人认为不出于愤怒或打击, 但是，为了展示你为什么他们相信自己是正确的. 争论通常被接受为谈话的一部分, 除非你说话要很大声 (尖叫) 或使用坏或粗鲁的语言. 学生是允许、 甚至鼓励他们的老师不同意. 孩子们可以跟他们的父母. 工人可以不同意他们的老板, 但很有礼貌. 有时, 尤其是在美国政坛, 人认为这么多，什么都不能完成!
Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!
如果你觉得不舒服，在参数, 没什么不好解释，你做不感觉舒适争论. 然而, 您可能需要学会告诉人们，你不同意他们，否则他们可能会认为你同意他们说什么.
If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.
都是沟通的很难的当你正在适应一种新文化的一部分是沟通的幽默. 你可能会让周围的人听不懂的笑话. 或者有人可能使你不懂的笑话. 因为幽默是文化, 有时，即使你懂这个笑话, 你可能不觉得这很有趣.
One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.
Contracts and agreements
In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.
协议是通常言语. 举个例子, 有人会问，你要做些什么，你说是或否. 这是一项协议. 在美国, 口头协议一般很认真. 有时, 当你做出一项口头协议, 你可能也握手。. 握手是一个符号，你都要履行协议.
Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.
口头协议的一个问题是, 有时人们会误解. 举个例子, 你可以和某人达成口头协议, 你会在 5 下午的那一天. 但, 也许他们误解了，以为你是指第二天.
One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.
如果你同意的东西, 它是重要对美国人来说，你要么履行该协议，或者你让他们知道你不能完成协定 》. 即使是对一些小的东西来说也是如此. 举个例子, 如果有人问你吃午饭，你说是的, 你应该要么去午餐或你应该打电话给他们，告诉他们你可以 ’ t 来之前它是午饭时间到了.
If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.
合同是哪两个国家的协议 (或更多) 人同意. 当你搬进一间公寓你签的租约. 你什么时候开始工作, 您可能会收到一份就业合同. 如果你买汽车信贷, 你可能会签署一份贷款协议. 所有这些都是合同.
Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.
如果你签订合同, 你可能有法律义务履行该合同. 所以，非常重要，你仔细阅读它. 如果合同是在英语, 你可能想要请帮忙翻译. 一份简单的合同, 你可以问一个朋友, 或者你可以 给我们发电子邮件 我们会尽力帮助你理解合同. 如果它有关钱, 工作, 或法律服务, 你可能想要使用一个专业的翻译或求教你社会工作者.
If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.
这些都是对美国文化 — — 不是事实, 只是想帮助你更好地理解为什么一个美国人的行为方式与你习惯的方式不同. 美国的方式和文化并不比其他方式好或差--只是不同.
These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.