Nini ni ngazi katika mfumo wa elimu wa Marekani?

Kiingereza piaKiingereza hakuna

Katika Marekani, shule za umma huanza kati ya umri wa 4 na 6 na inaendelea hadi 16 kwa 18 umri wa miaka. Unaweza kutuma pia watoto wako kabla shule katika umri mdogo. Jifunze kuhusu viwango mbalimbali vya mfumo wa elimu wa Marekani. Kujifunza ni mpangilio gani na jinsi shule mahali mtoto wako.

In the USA, public school starts between the age of 4 and 6 and continues until 16 to 18 years old. You can send also your children to pre-school at an early age. Learn about the different levels of the American education system. Learn what placement is and how schools place your child.

wanafunzi wa shule ya sekondari

high school students

Chini ya sheria ya Marekani, your children must go to school for a certain number of years between certain ages. Umri na idadi ya miaka inatofautiana kutoka hali kwa hali. Unaweza kujua umri na idadi ya miaka katika hali yako.

Under US law, your children must go to school for a certain number of years between certain ages. The ages and number of years varies from state to state. You can find out the ages and number of years in your state.

Mfumo wa elimu katika shule za umma wa Marekani

The education system in US public schools

Elimu ya utotoni

Early childhood education

Elimu ya mapema ni neno linalotumiwa kuzungumza kuhusu watoto wadogo kuwa wazi kwa elimu. Hata wakati mtoto wako ni mtoto, ni muhimu kuwasaidia kusoma kwao, kuimba pamoja nao na kuwasaidia kujifunza wote yako kwanza lugha na Kiingereza. Kuna utafiti inaonyesha watoto ambao huzungumza lugha mbili au zaidi (ni “billingual”) kuwa na faida zaidi kuliko watoto ambao kuzungumza lugha moja tu. Utotoni vituo vya elimu na vituo vya daycare zinapatikana kwa watoto kupitia watoto umri wa miaka minne au mitano.

Early education is a term used to talk about young children being exposed to education. Even when your child is a baby, it is important to help read to them, sing with them and help them learn both your first language and English. There is research that shows children who speak two or more languages (are “billingual”) have more advantages than children who speak only one language. Early childhood education centers and daycare centers are available for infants through children age four or five.

Wasioenda shule

Preschool

Wasioenda shule husaidia watoto (umri wa miaka tatu na nne) kuendeleza. Baadhi ya shule itaanza watoto katika shule katika 2 na nusu. Husaidia wasioenda shule yao kuwa tayari kwa ajili ya shule katika umri wa miaka mitano au sita. Chaguo moja kwa wasioenda shule inaitwa kichwa kuanza. Watoto wasioenda shule ya wazee kutoka familia ya kipato cha chini anaweza kuhudhuria programu ya kichwa kuanza. Shahidi ni ya gharama nafuu wasioenda shule inayoendeshwa na serikali. Unaweza kutafuta kwa ajili ya Programu ya kichwa kuanza karibu na wewe.

Preschool helps children (ages three and four) develop. Some schools will start children in preschool at 2 and a half. Preschool helps them be ready for school at age five or six. One option for preschool is called Head Start. Preschool-aged children from low-income families can attend Head Start programs. Head Start is a low-cost preschool run by the government. You can search for a Head Start program near you.

Shule ya msingi

Elementary school

Watoto kawaida kuanza shule ya msingi na shule ya awali (K) katika umri wa miaka mitano na kuendelea kupitia darasa la tano au sita. Wanaacha shule ya msingi karibu umri wa miaka kumi au kumi na moja. Watoto kujifunza mambo mengi kutoka kwa mwalimu mmoja katika darasa moja.

Children usually begin elementary school with kindergarten (K) at age five and continue through grade five or six. They leave elementary school around age ten or eleven. Children learn many subjects from one teacher in a single classroom.

Shule ya kati (Pia inaitwa Shule ya Upili ya junior)

Middle school (also called junior high school)

Shule ya kati anafundisha wanafunzi grades sita kupitia nane. Wao ni karibu miaka kumi kwa 14. Wanafunzi wa shule ya kati kawaida swichi kutoka darasa kwa darasa. Wanaweza kuwa walimu wengi wa tofauti katika siku moja ya shule. Katika jamii ndogo, watoto itakuwa kubadili shule kwenda shule ya kati. Utakuwa Endelea kwa shule ya msingi.

Middle school teaches students grades six through eight. They are around ages ten to 14. Middle school students usually switch from classroom to classroom. They may have many different teachers in one school day. In smaller communities, children will not switch schools to go to middle school. They will keep going to elementary school.

Shule ya sekondari

High school

Wanafunzi kuhudhuria shule ya sekondari kati ya umri wa 14 na kwa kawaida 17 au 18. Madarasa ni Pangwa kwa masomo. Mwanafunzi huenda walimu wengi kwa siku moja. Baadhi ya wanafunzi wanaweza kuchukua madarasa ya juu. Baadhi ya wanafunzi wanaweza kuchukua madarasa ya kuwaandaa kwa kazi au kwa ajili ya Chuo cha. Shule za sekondari na vilabu, shughuli za, Michezo, mipango Work-study, na shughuli nyingine za.

Students attend high school between the ages of 14 and usually 17 or 18. The classes are arranged by subjects. A student may have many teachers in one day. Some students can take advanced classes. Some students can take classes that prepare them for work or for college. High schools have clubs, activities, sports, work-study arrangements, and other activities.

Uwekaji wa shule katika mfumo wa elimu wa Marekani

School placement in the American education system

Uwekaji wa shule maana kuamua katika daraja ambayo mwanafunzi wako itawekwa. Inaweza pia kumaanisha ambapo shule maeneo mwanafunzi ndani ya daraja yao.

School placement means deciding in which grade your student will be placed. It can also mean where a school places a student within their grade.

Wanafunzi wengi wa wakimbizi wanaweza wamekosa shule walipokuwa katika kambi au kukimbia nchi yao. Inaweza kuwa ngazi ya daraja tofauti kuliko mwanafunzi halisi wa Marekani wa umri huo. Baadhi ya wanafunzi wanaweza kuwa katika ngazi kuu lakini hawazungumzi Kiingereza bado. Wale wanafunzi wanaweza kuwa matatizo katika madarasa vigumu mpaka wanajifunza Kiingereza bora. Shule nchini Marekani wakati mwingine kuweka wanafunzi katika madarasa ya makosa.

Many refugee students may have missed school while they were in camp or fleeing their country. They may be at different grade levels than a typical American student of the same age. Some students might be at a high-grade level but do not speak English yet. Those students may have trouble in harder classes until they learn English better. Schools in the US sometimes place students in the wrong grades.

Jinsi shule mahali mtoto wangu?

How will schools place my child?

Wanafunzi wanaweza kuchukua baadhi majaribio kabla ya kuanza mwaka wa shule au katika mwanzo wa mwaka wa shule. Majaribio yanaweza kuandikwa. Wapate mtu mzima soma maswali kwa mwanafunzi. Ni tofauti kwa kila wilaya ya shule.

Students may take some tests before the start of the school year or at the very beginning of the school year. The tests might be written. They might have an adult read questions to a student. It is different for every school district.

Kama unadhani mtoto wako ni kuwekwa katika daraja mbaya, Unaweza kuzungumza na mwalimu, Mkuu, au wafanyakazi wa shule ambao kupimwa na kuwekwa mtoto wako.

If you think your child is placed in the wrong grade, you can talk to the teacher, principal, or the school staff who tested and placed your child.

  • Uliza, "Ni nini ilikuwa hoja yako?"Shule inaweza kukusaidia kuelewa uamuzi wao.
  • Eleza ni kwa nini unafikiri uwekaji ni makosa. Inaweza kuwa na uwezo wa kubadilisha uwekaji kama kukubaliana na sababu yako.
  • Ask, “What was your reasoning?” The school can help you understand their decision.
  • Explain why you think the placement is wrong. They may be able to change the placement if they agree with your reasons.

Jinsi shule kuamua kiwango gani darasa mtoto wangu inachukua?

How does the school decide which class level my child takes?

Kuna sababu nyingi shule anachagua ngazi ya kwa mwanafunzi. Hizi ni sababu za kawaida:

There are many reasons the school chooses a level for a student. These are common reasons:

  • Jinsi mwanafunzi anaelewa lugha ya kingereza au alama zao mtihani
  • Mapendekezo ya mzazi au mlezi
  • Alama ya mtihani zilizosanifishwa, kama inavyofaa
  • Nia ya kukamilisha kazi changamoto
  • Maslahi ya mwanafunzi au motisha
  • Mapendekezo ya mwalimu au mshauri
  • Sampuli ya mwanafunzi kufanya kazi
  • How well the student understands English or their test scores
  • Parent/guardian recommendations
  • Standardized test scores, as appropriate
  • Willingness to complete challenging assignments
  • Student interest or motivation
  • Teacher or counselor recommendation
  • Samples of student work

Daraja sawa, ngazi mbalimbali

Same grade, different level

Kati na shule za upili zina madarasa ambayo yanafundishwa katika viwango tofauti katika daraja sawa. Baadhi ni ngumu na ni rahisi. Majina ya kozi wakati mwingine kuelezea kiwango cha ugumu. Maneno Badilisha kulingana na wilaya ya shule.

Middle and high schools have classes that are taught at different levels in the same grade. Some are harder and some are easier. The names of the courses sometimes describe the level of difficulty. The words change depending on the school district.

Majina kwa ajili ya madarasa ambayo ni rahisi au kutumia ngazi rahisi ya Kiingereza:

Names for classes that are easier or use easier English levels:

  • Ushirikishwaji
  • Stadi za msingi
  • Inclusion
  • Basic skills

Majina kwa ajili ya madarasa katika kiwango cha kawaida kwa ajili ya daraja:

Names for classes at a typical level for the grade:

  • Mara kwa mara
  • Non-alipotafuta
  • Regular
  • Non-honors

Majina kwa ajili ya madarasa katika ya juu au chuo cha kiwango cha:

Names for classes at a higher or advanced level:

  • Alipotafuta
  • GTE (Elimu ya alivyojaliwa na vipaji)
  • Mpangilio Pevu (AP)
  • IB (Baccalaureate ya kimataifa)
  • Honors
  • GTE (Gifted and talented education)
  • Advanced placement (AP)
  • IB (International Baccalaureate)

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