Jinsi ya kupata mahali pa kuishi

Kiingereza piaKiingereza hakuna

Ni kuangalia mahali pa kuishi? Makazi katika Marekani mara nyingi ni ghali. Inaweza kuwa vigumu kupata sehemu nzuri ya kuishi katika kitongoji salama. Wewe huenda pia kukuchanganya na jinsi ya kupata mahali pa kuishi. Ukurasa huu hutoa habari muhimu kuhusu ulipaji wa bili, wanaoishi karibu na majirani, na umiliki wa nyumbani.

Are you looking a place to live? Housing in the USA is often expensive. It may be hard to find a nice place to live in a safe neighborhood. You may also be confused by how to find a place to live. This page provides important information about paying bills, living near neighbors, and home ownership.

kukaribisha wakimbizi

welcoming refugees

Nyumba yako ni mahali muhimu. Kuna msemo katika Marekani: “Nyumbani ni wapi moyo.” Hii inamaanisha nyumba zetu kimwili – maeneo tunaishi – kuashiria watu na vitu tunampenda. Wakimbizi wengi kujivunia nyumba yao mpya. Kuwa salama, pahali pazuri pa kuishi itasaidia kufanya kujisikia Marekani kama nyumbani. Mahitaji ya makazi ya wakimbizi ni tofauti kwa kila familia, lakini kuna aina nyingi tofauti za nyumba kuchagua kutoka.

Your home is an important place. There is a saying in the United States: “Home is where the heart is.” This means our physical homes – the places we live – symbolize the people and things we love. Many refugees take pride in their new homes. Having a safe, comfortable place to live will help make the United States feel like home. Refugee housing needs are different for each family, but there are many different types of homes to choose from.

Aina za nyumba

Types of housing

Kukodisha mahali pa kuishi

Renting a place to live

Nyumba nchini Marekani inaweza kuwa vyumba (sehemu zilizomo binafsi ya jengo kubwa) au nyumba moja. Kwa kodi nyumba, lazima ulipe kiasi kila mwezi kwa mmiliki. Unapoingia na kukodisha, ambayo ni makubaliano ambayo anasema unaweza kulipa kodi yako na wengine bili za kila mwezi.

Homes in the United States can be apartments (a self-contained part of a larger building) or a single house. To you rent a home, you must pay an amount every month to the owner. You will sign a lease, which is an agreement that says you will pay your rent and other bills each month.

Kugawana nyumba au ghorofa

Sharing a house or apartment

Alishiriki nyumba ina maana kodi wewe nyumba au ghorofa na Wamarekani wito roommates – watu wengine kuishi katika nyumba hiyo hiyo au ghorofa na wewe na familia yako. Mara nyingi ni nafuu zaidi kuliko kukodisha nafasi yako mwenyewe kwa sababu wewe Baidisha gharama ya kodi na huduma (umeme, inapokanzwa nk). Kawaida kila mtu ana chumbani yao wenyewe na kushiriki chumba hai, jikoni na bafuni.

Shared housing means you rent a house or an apartment with what Americans call roommates – other people living in the same house or apartment with you and your family. It is often cheaper than renting your own place because you can split the cost of the rent and utilities (electricity, heating etc). Usually everyone has their own bedroom and they share a living room, kitchen and bathroom.

Kumiliki nyumba

Owning a home

Kununua nyumba nchini Marekani ni ghali. Wakati kununua nyumba, kawaida unahitaji umeweka akiba ya pesa kulipa kwa ajili ya malipo ya chini (asilimia ya gharama ya jumla ya nyumba), na kisha wewe mara nyingi kukopa pesa kulipa kwa ajili ya mapumziko ya nyumba. Kila mwezi unalipa malipo yako mikopo benki kwa ajili ya pesa zilizokopwa wewe. Wakati kununua nyumba, pia una gharama nyingine, ikiwa ni pamoja na bima, kodi na kurekebisha nyumbani.

Buying a home in the United States is expensive. When you buy a home, you normally need to have saved money to pay for a down payment (a percentage of the total cost of the house), and then you often borrow money to pay for the rest of the house. Each month you pay your mortgage payment to the bank for the money you borrowed. When you buy a home, you also have other expenses, including insurance, taxes and home repair.

Kuangalia sehemu ya kodi

Looking for a place to rent

Kutafuta mahali pa kodi ni ngumu. Daima kuna mengi ya mashindano kwa ajili ya kukodi ya gharama nafuu. Kuna aina mbili za nyumba unaweza kujaribu kwa wakati wewe ni kuangalia kwa ajili ya mahali pa kuishi katika kujipatia mapato:

Finding a place to rent is hard. There is always a lot of competition for affordable rentals. There are two types of housing you can try for when you are looking for a place to live on a limited income:

Nyumba za bei nafuu

Affordable housing

Katika miji mikubwa na wale baadhi ndogo, Kuna mashirika lisilo na mashirika ya serikali ambayo kutoa makazi kwa watu wa kipato cha chini. Kwa bahati mbaya kuna kawaida ya kusubiri kwa muda mrefu kwa ajili ya makazi ya gharama nafuu. Lakini kama kuna nyumba za bei nafuu katika eneo lako, ni vizuri kupata katika orodha ya kusubiri. Nyumba ushauri shirika atakuambia gani nyumba za bei nafuu inapatikana. Unaweza kutafuta kwa mapezi wote mashirika ya umma nyumba katika eneo na mashirika ya ushauri katika eneo lako.

In large cities and some smaller ones, there are non-profit organizations and government agencies that provide housing for low-income people. Unfortunately there is usually a long wait for affordable housing. But if there is affordable housing in your area, it is good to get on the waiting list. A housing counseling agency can tell you what affordable housing is available. You can search to fins both local public housing agencies and counseling agencies in your area.

Unaweza pia kutafuta kwa ajili ya shirika la ndani katika jamii yako katika FindHello. Chagua lugha yako, kisha chagua mji wako. Kisha teua “Makazi ya & Chakula.” Kama kuna kitu hapa kwa ajili ya jamii yako, Tafutiza kwenye wavuti. Aina “nyumba za bei nafuu katika [jina la mji wako].”

You can also search for a local organization in your community in FindHello. Choose your language, then choose your city. Then select “Housing & Food.” If there is nothing listed for your community, search on the internet. Type “affordable housing in [name of your city].”

Kukodi kibinafsi

Private rentals

Kukodi nafuu binafsi kupata kujazwa haraka kama ni kutangazwa. Unahitaji kupata orodha ya bora na kuangalia yao kila siku. Baadhi ya kurasa ya orodha ya itakuarifu wakati matangazo mpya zimetumwa. Hapa ni orodha ya ya bora ghorofa kodi tovuti na programu. Tovuti ya Craigslist ni tovuti iliyotumika kwa ajili ya kukodi. Lakini juu ya Craiglist, una kuwa makini ya watu kujaribu kudanganya wewe. Baadhi ya matangazo ni udanganyifu. Kamwe kutuma pesa au maelezo ya kibinafsi kwa yeyote mtandaoni. Kamwe unahitaji kulipa kodi mpaka una makubaliano.

Cheap private rentals get filled as soon as they are advertised. You will need to find the best listings and check them every day. Some listings pages will notify you when new advertisements are posted. Here is a list of the best apartment rental sites and apps. The website Craigslist is the most used site for rentals. But on Craiglist, you have to be careful of people trying to cheat you. Some of the ads are fraudulent. Never send money or personal information to anyone online. You never need to pay rent until you have an agreement.

Pengine unataka kodi nafasi yako mwenyewe, hasa kama wewe ni mtu zaidi ya mmoja tuu. Lakini mara nyingi utakuwa na nafasi nzuri ya kupata mahali fulani kama wewe Fikiria kushiriki nyumba au ghorofa. Hii ni kweli hasa katika kubwa inapiga wapi kodi ni kubwa sana. Kushiriki njia si tu kushiriki kodi ya, lakini kushirikiana gharama nyingine zote pamoja na watu wengine wazima kazi. Kama uko tayari kushiriki, Unaweza kweli kuishia mahali nicer, na nafasi zaidi au na yadi ya, kwa sababu na roommates unaweza kumudu jambo kubwa.

You probably want to rent your own place, especially if you are more than just one person. But often you will have a better chance of finding somewhere if you consider sharing a house or apartment. This is especially true in big cites where rents are very high. Sharing means not just sharing the rent, but sharing all the other costs with other working adults. If you are prepared to share, you may actually end up in a nicer place, with more space or with a yard, because with roommates you can afford something bigger.

Kukodisha na haki za

Renting and rights

Kama ni kukodisha nyumba, una haki ya kadhaa. Una haki ya kuishi katika mahali safi, ina mende, na ina joto na maji. Katika Marekani, kuna sheria kwamba mwenye nyumba haiwezi zinabagua wewe. Hii inamaanisha mwenye nyumba haiwezi kusema hapana kwa maombi yako ya kukodisha kwa sababu ya rangi yako, ukabila, au dini. Pia kuna sheria maalum katika majimbo tofauti kuhusu jinsi watu wengi wanaweza kuishi katika nyumba yako na nini mwenye nyumba lazima kutoa kwako. Hud.gov ni tovuti ya kielimu kuhusu nyumba. Unaweza kujifunza kuhusu ubaguzi wa makazi na haki za Mpangaji katika hali yako.

If you are renting a home, you have several rights. You have the right to live in a place that is clean, has no bugs, and has heat and water. In the United States, there is a law that a landlord cannot discriminate against you. This means a landlord cannot say no to your rental application because of your race, ethnicity, or religion. There are also specific laws in different states about how many people can live in your apartment and what your landlord must provide for you. Hud.gov is an educational website about housing. You can learn about housing discrimination and tenant rights in your state.

Saini ya kukodisha

Signing a lease

Ya kukodisha ni waraka wa maandishi kwamba unapoingia wakati kodi mahali pa kuishi. Kukodisha ni makubaliano kati yako na mwenye nyumba, mmiliki wa Kitengo cha kukodisha. Katika kukodisha, unakubali kulipa kodi na bili zako kwa wakati kila mwezi na mwenye nyumba anakubaliana kutoa salama na usafi (safi na hakuna wadudu) Kitengo cha kodi.

A lease is a written document that you sign when you rent a place to live. The lease is an agreement between you and the landlord, the owner of the rental unit. In the lease, you agree to pay your rent and bills on time each month and the landlord agrees to provide a safe and sanitary (clean with no bugs) rental unit.

Kabla ya kuingia

Before you sign

Kabla unapoingia kukodisha yako, Hakikisha kuangalia Kitengo cha kukodisha na mwenye nyumba. Kama kuna vitu kuvunjwa, au kama mahali ni chafu, Uliza mwenye nyumba kuandika kwamba juu ya kukodisha. Njia hiyo utakuwa ushahidi baadaye kwamba unaweza kuvunja chochote wala kufanya chafu.

Before you sign your lease, make sure to look at the rental unit with the landlord. If there are things broken, or if the place is dirty, ask the landlord to write that down on the lease. That way you will have evidence later that you did not break anything or make it dirty.

Kulipa amana ya usalama

Paying security deposits

Wakati wewe kwanza hoja, Itakubidi kulipa amana ya usalama. Fedha hii ni agizo kwa mwenye nyumba mpaka wewe kuhamia nje katika kesi kulipa kodi yako au kama wewe kufanya Kitengo cha kukodisha chafu sana na wanapaswa kulipa kwa kuwa ni kusafishwa. Kama kulipa kodi yako na safi ghorofa wakati wewe kuhamia nje, Kisha wanapaswa kupata pesa zako amana akarudi na wewe. Ukodishaji baadhi zinahitaji safi carpet yako ili kupata amana yako nyuma. Kuwa na uhakika wa kuangalia kama carpet katika nyumba yako ilikuwa kusafishwa wakati wewe. Kama alikuwa kusafishwa, kuuliza kwa mwenye nyumba kuweka kwa maandishi kwamba huna safi carpet. Kama una safi carpet, Unaweza kodi mashine kwa bei ya chini badala ya kulipa kampuni ya fedha safi carpet nyingi.

When you first move in, you may have to pay a security deposit. This money is kept by the landlord until you move out in case you do not pay your rent or if you make the rental unit very dirty and they have to pay to have it cleaned. If you pay your rent and clean the apartment when you move out, then you should get your deposit money returned to you. Some leases require you to clean your carpet in order to get your deposit back. Be sure to check if the carpet in your apartment was cleaned when you moved in. If it was not cleaned, ask for the landlord to put in writing that you do not have to clean the carpet. If you do have to clean the carpet, you can rent a machine for a low price instead of having to pay a company a lot of money to clean the carpet.

Urefu wa kukodisha

Length of lease

Ukodishaji ni saini kwa idadi fulani ya miezi. Ukodishaji wengi ni kwa miezi sita au mwaka mmoja. Unaweza pia kuwa na uwezo wa kuingia kukodisha na mwezi kwa mwezi. Hii ina maana unaweza kuhamisha nje wakati wowote unataka. Hata hivyo, bado kawaida ingekuwa kuwaambia mwenye nyumba mwezi mapema kwamba utakuwa hoja na lazima kulipa kodi kupitia mwisho wa makubaliano yako.

Leases are signed for a certain number of months. Most leases are for six months or for one year. You might also be able to sign a month-to-month lease. This means you can move out any time you want. However, you would still normally have to tell the landlord a month in advance that you will move and you must pay rent through the end of your agreement.

Tambua mahitaji

Notice requirements

Ukodishaji wengi itahitaji unaweza kutoa idadi fulani ya siku’ Ilani kabla ya wewe kuhamia nje. Kama wewe ni kwenda nje kodi yako, kuwa na uhakika wa kuangalia yako kukodisha kuona siku ngapi kabla ya wakati unahitaji kuwaambia mwenye nyumba wewe utakuwa kusonga.

Most leases will require you to give a certain number of days’ notice before you move out. If you are going to move out of your rental, be sure to check your lease to see how many days ahead of time you need to tell your landlord you will be moving.

Barua na miswada

Mail and bills

Wakati kupata mahali pa kuishi, unahitaji kulipa bili kwa wakati. Wewe pengine kupata bili ya umeme na huduma nyingine katika barua.

When you find a place to live, you will need to pay your bills on time. You will probably get bills for electricity and other utilities in the mail.

Kodi

Rent

Kodi ni kawaida ukomo siku ya kwanza ya mwezi au siku ya mwezi wa kwanza kuhamia katika. Jaribu daima kulipa kodi yako kutumia hundi, badala ya fedha. Kila wakati Uliza risiti ili kuwa na uthibitisho kwamba malipo.

Rent is normally due on the first of the month or on the day of the month that you first moved in. Try to always pay your rent using a check, instead of cash. Always ask for a receipt so that you have proof that you paid.

Barua

Mail

Uliza mwenye nyumba ambapo kikashabarua iko na kuwa na uhakika wa kuangalia barua yako mara kwa mara. Utahitaji kujaza fomu katika ofisi za posta Ukihamisha. Wakati wewe kuijaza, barua yako utatumwa kwako katika anwani yako mpya.

Ask your landlord where your mailbox is located and be sure to check your mail regularly. You will need to fill out a form at the post office if you move. When you fill it out, your mail will be sent to you at your new address.

Huduma

Utilities

Kawaida, utakuwa na kulipia huduma yako ikiwemo umeme yako, gesi asilia au mafuta, maji, TV/internet, simu, takataka, mitaro ya maji taka, nk. Wakati mwingine, huduma ya baadhi au yote yamo katika kodi yako, Lakini mara nyingi una kuwalipa tofauti. Unaweza kuokoa fedha juu ya huduma yako kwa kuweka joto chini na amevaa joto nguo zenu katika nyumba, na kuzima taa na unplugging vifaa vya kielektroniki wakati wao si zinahitajika.

Usually, you will have to pay for your utilities including your electricity, natural gas or oil, water, TV/internet, telephone, trash, sewer, etc. Sometimes, some or all utilities are included in your rent, but most of the time you have to pay them separately. You can save money on your utilities by keeping your heat low and wearing warm clothes in the house, and by turning off lights and unplugging electronic devices when they are not needed.

Kununua nyumba

Buying a house

Kununua nyumba ni pengine kununua ukubwa umewahi kufanya. Kuna kura ya masuala ya kisheria kwa ajili yenu, Benki ya, na kwa mtu kuuza nyumba. Ya Marekani Idara ya nyumba na maendeleo mijini ina habari kubwa kuhusu kununua nyumba yako kwanza na programu kwa mara ya kwanza na kipato cha chini nyumbani wanunuzi.

Buying a house is probably the largest purchase you will ever make. There are lots of legal issues for you, the bank, and for the person selling the home. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development has great information about buying your first home and programs for first-time and low-income home buyers.

Unaweza kuangalia kupata programu ya homebuying ili kukusaidia kununua nyumba katika mji wako au hali.

You can look to find homebuying programs to help you buy a home in your city or state.

Smartasset.com ina zana nzuri ya kukusaidia kuamua kukodi au kununua nyumba. Inaweza kukusaidia kujifunza kama unaweza kumudu kununua nyumba.

Smartasset.com has good tools to help you decide to rent or buy a house. It can help you learn if you can afford to buy a house.

Majirani

Neighbors

Daima ni muhimu kuwa na mahusiano mazuri na jirani yako, popote mnapoishi. Lakini uhusiano huu inaweza kuwa tofauti katika nchi yako nyumbani. Kwa mfano, katika nchi yako, unaweza kutembelea jirani yako wakati wowote wa siku. Katika Marekani, watu mara nyingi simu kabla ya wao kutembelea rafiki au jirani. Lazima pia jaribu kuwa na heshima ya jirani yako. Wamarekani wengi kufikiria mali zao kama mali binafsi. Wao si kama ni kama kutembea katika yadi au hifadhi ya mbele ya nyumba yao.

It is always important to have a good relationship with your neighbors, wherever you live. But this relationship might be different than in your home country. For example, in your country, you might visit your neighbor at any time of day. In the USA, people often call before they visit a friend or neighbor. You should also try to be respectful of your neighbors. Many Americans think of their property as private property. They might not like it if you walk in their yard or park in front of their house.

Unapaswa pia kuwa ufahamu wa kelele kiasi gani unafanya. Jaribu kuwa na utulivu kati ya 8 p.m. na 8 asubuhi, wakati kawaida ya mapumziko ya Marekani.

You should also be aware of how much noise you are making. Try to be quiet between 8 p.m. and 8 a.m., the usual time of rest in the USA.

Kama unaweza kuendeleza uhusiano mzuri na jirani yako, Hii inaweza kuwa nzuri kwa ajili ya familia yako. Wakati majirani mpya hoja, wewe Jitambulishe na kuwaleta mlo au sahani ya chipsi.

If you develop a good relationship with your neighbors, this can be good for your family. When new neighbors move in, you can introduce yourself and bring them a meal or plate of treats.

Kama una tatizo na mmoja wa jirani yako, Jaribu kuzungumza nao na kueleza hali ya. Kwa mfano, kama mtu ni kuwa kubwa wakati wa usiku, Waulize nicely kama wanaweza kuwa mtulivu kwa sababu watoto wako ni kulala. Kama unahitaji msaada zaidi unaweza kuwaambia mwenye nyumba kuhusu tatizo na waulize kuongea na jirani yako.

If you are having a problem with one of your neighbors, try to talk to them and explain the situation. For example, if someone is being loud at night, ask them nicely if they can be quieter because your children are sleeping. If you need more help you can tell your landlord about the problem and ask them to talk to your neighbor.

Jifunze zaidi

Learn more

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Asante kwa maoni yako!