Daktari ni nini?

Kiingereza piaKiingereza hakuna

Daktari ni nini? Je, ni aina gani ya madaktari kuna? Ipi wanastahili kwenda kwa? Kujifunza ni aina gani ya daktari au mhudumu wa afya kutembelea.

What is a doctor? What kind of doctors are there? Which one should you go to? Learn which kind of doctor or health provider to visit.

Daktari ni nini?

What is a doctor?

Daktari ni nini?

What is a doctor?

Daktari ni mtu ambaye ni mafunzo ya kutibu wagonjwa. Katika Marekani, Kuna aina nyingi ya madaktari na wafanyakazi wengine wa tiba. Wamarekani kuwaita wafanyakazi wa tiba “watoa huduma za afya” au “watoa huduma za afya.” Hawa ni watu ambao kusaidia wakati wewe ni mgonjwa au kujeruhiwa.

A doctor is a person who is trained to treat sick people. In the USA, there are many kinds of doctors and other medical workers. Americans call medical workers “healthcare providers” or “medical providers.” These are people who help you when you are sick or injured.

Je, ni aina gani ya madaktari kuna?

What kind of doctors are there?

Kuna aina tatu za watoa huduma za afya unaweza kuhitajika:

There are three types of medical providers you may need:

1. Afya ya msingi

1. Primary care providers

2. Wataalamu
2. Specialists
3. Huduma ya matibabu ya dharura

3. Emergency medical services

Ambao unaweza kuona msaada itategemea suala yako afya.

Who you see for help will depend on your health issue.

1. Afya ya msingi

1. Primary care providers

Afya ya msingi (PCPs) kutoa msingi, huduma ya kila siku na mbalimbali ya huduma za afya kwa watu binafsi na familia kwa ajili ya matatizo ya kawaida ya matibabu. PCP ni kawaida ni mtu wa kwanza wa matibabu unaweza kuona wakati una tatizo.

Primary care providers (PCPs) provide basic, everyday care and a range of healthcare services to individuals and families for common medical problems. A PCP is usually the first medical person you see when you have a problem.

Nani kuwa msingi mhudumu?

Who can be a primary care provider?

PCP yako inaweza kuwa daktari (pia kuitwa daktari katika Marekani), Msaidizi wa ya wa daktari au mhudumu na muuguzi. Wanachama wote wa familia yako inaweza kuona PCP sawa, au unaweza kuona idadi ya watu wote kulingana na kituo cha afya yako. Unaweza kuona PCP sawa kwa miaka mingi.

Your PCP may be a doctor (also called a physician in the US), a physician’s assistant or a nurse practitioner. All members of your family may see the same PCP, or you may see a number of people all based at your local health center. You may see the same PCP for many years.

Hapa ni mifano michache ya wakati unaweza kuona daktari wako wa familia:

Here are a few examples of when you would see your family doctor:

  • kwa ajili ya kila mwaka afya kuangalia-up
  • kama mwana au binti yako alikuwa na maambukizi ya sikio
  • wakati wala kujisikia vizuri lakini sio dharura
  • kama unahitajika kupata hukupima kuomba uraia
  • kwa ajili ya huduma ya kuzuia
  • for a yearly health check-up
  • if your son or daughter had an ear infection
  • when you don’t feel well but it is not an emergency
  • if you needed to get immunizations to apply for citizenship
  • for preventative care

Jinsi kupata msingi mhudumu?

How do I find a primary care provider?

Kutakuwa na mtoaji wa huduma za msingi katika jamii yako. Jamii nyingi na vituo vya afya au kliniki za afya. Unaweza kuuliza marafiki na majirani: “daktari anaweza kupendekeza ni nini?”. Upataji wa makazi mapya ofisi yako au mshauri inaweza pia kukusaidia kupata daktari wa familia. Au unaweza kuangalia FindHello kwa watoa huduma za afya.

There will be a primary care provider in your community. Most communities have health centers or health clinics. You can ask friends and neighbors: “what is a doctor that you can recommend?”. Your resettlement office or mentor can also help you find a family doctor. Or you can look in FindHello for healthcare providers.

Hayapatiwi

Preventative care

Bima yako afya inaweza kutoa faida ya afya kuzuia. Jaribu kuzitumia! Hizi ni majaribio na programu nyingine kwamba inaweza kusaidia kusitisha unaweza kutokana na matatizo ya afya ya nchi zinazoendelea. Zinajumuisha kupata kuangalia-ups kwa afya yako hata kama wewe kujisikia mgonjwa au kuwa niliona kitu chochote kibaya. Aina mbalimbali za kujihami kiulinzi afya (majaribio) ni inapatikana kwa bure. Kujua maonyesho ambayo ni kufunikwa na mipango ya bima ya afya wengi.

Your health insurance may offer preventative health benefits. Try to use them! These are tests and other programs that help to stop you from developing health problems. They include getting check-ups on your health even if you do not feel sick or have not noticed anything wrong. A wide variety of health screenings (tests) are available for free. Find out which screenings are covered by most health insurance plans.

2. Wataalamu

2. Specialists

Mtoa huduma wako wa kimsingi kukutumia kwa mtaalamu kwa hakika majeraha na magonjwa. Mtaalamu ni mtoa huduma za afya ambao hulenga mfumo wa mwili maalum au sehemu ya mwili. Kwa mfano, dermatologist na anawajali ngozi, gastroenterologist na anawajali mfumo wa umeng'enyaji, na orthopedist na anawajali mifupa.

Your primary care provider may send you to a specialist for certain injuries and illnesses. A specialist is a healthcare provider who focuses on a specific body system or part of the body. For example, a dermatologist cares for the skin, a gastroenterologist cares for the digestive system, and an orthopedist cares for bones.

Hapa ni mifano michache ya wakati unaweza kuona mtaalamu:

Here are a few examples of when you would see a specialist:

  • una matatizo ya tumbo, na PCP yako hutuma wewe kwa ajili ya kupima
  • mole juu ya ngozi yako imebadilika umbo au rangi
  • mwana au binti yako haijaanza kuongea
  • you have stomach problems, and your PCP sends you for testing
  • a mole on your skin has changed shape or color
  • your son or daughter has not started to speak

Wataalamu baadhi tu kutibu watoto au wazee. Jifunze zaidi kuhusu mbalimbali aina za madaktari wanaweza kukutana katika Marekani.

Some specialists just treat children or elders. Learn more about the different types of doctors you might meet in the USA.

Rufaa kwa wataalamu

Referrals to specialists

Rufaa ni mapendekezo kwamba unaweza kuona mtoa mwingine wa afya (Mtaalamu wa, kwa mfano). Unaweza kutaka kuuliza PCP yako rufaa kabla unaweza kuona mtaalamu. Mtaalamu unaweza kuhitaji hii au kampuni yako ya bima unaweza kuhitaji. Hakikisha upitie mpango wako wa bima ya afya ili kuona kama rufaa inahitajika kabla ya kufanya miadi na mtaalamu wa. Njia hiyo unaweza kuwa na uhakika bima yako itafikia ziara.

A referral is a recommendation that you see another healthcare provider (a specialist, for instance). You may need to ask your PCP for a referral before you see a specialist. The specialist might require this or your insurance company might require it. Be sure you review your health insurance plan to see if a referral is required before making an appointment with a specialist. That way you can be sure your insurance will cover the visit.

3. Huduma ya matibabu ya dharura

3. Emergency medical care

Vipi kama mtu katika familia yako inakuwa wagonjwa mwishoni mwa siku au mwishoni mwa wiki? Vipi kama una tatizo kubwa ambayo inahitaji huduma ya haraka? Kufanya miadi na PCP yako inaweza kuwa vigumu. Lakini kuna maeneo mengine kupata msaada haraka:

What if someone in your family becomes sick late in the day or over the weekend? What if you have a serious problem that requires immediate care? Making an appointment with your PCP may not be possible. But there are other places to get immediate help:

Huduma ya haraka na kliniki kutembea-katika

Urgent care and walk-in clinics

Huduma ya haraka na kutembea-katika kliniki mara nyingi saa za jioni na mwishoni mwa wiki na kutoa huduma kwa ajili ya kumuuguza matibabu bila miadi. Kuchukua Kumbuka ya anwani, kufungua masaa, na mawasiliano kwa ajili ya kliniki za huduma haraka karibu ambapo wanaishi.

Urgent care and walk-in clinics often have evening and weekend hours and provide care for minor medical problems without an appointment. Take note of the addresses, open hours, and contact information for urgent care clinics near to where you live.

Hapa ni mifano michache wakati wewe kutembelea ofisi ya huduma ya dharura:

Here are a few examples when you might visit an urgent care office:

  • wakati wa tukio la michezo, mwanao ugeni kichwa chake
  • una kikohozi mbaya sana na unafikiri unaweza kuwa na maambukizi
  • during a sporting event, your son hits his head
  • you have a very bad cough and you think you might have an infection

Idara ya dharura ya hospitali ya

Hospital emergency department

Idara ya dharura ya hospitali inatoa huduma kwa ajili ya maisha na mahitaji ya huduma ya afya ya dharura. Idara ya dharura ya wengi ni wazi 24 saa kwa siku, siku saba kwa wiki. Hakikisha unajua taarifa ya mahali na mawasiliano wa Idara ya dharura ya ile nyumba yako.

A hospital’s emergency department provides care for life-threatening and urgent healthcare needs. Most emergency departments are open 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Be sure you know the location and contact information of the emergency department nearest to your home.

Hapa ni mifano michache kwa wakati bila kwenda hospitali:

Here are a few examples for when you would go to the hospital:

  • mtoto mchanga au mtoto wako ana homa juu sana kwenye wiki ya
  • mke wako ni kwenda katika kazi
  • mume wako ana kuvunjwa mguu wake
  • your infant or baby has a very high fever on the weekend
  • your wife is going into labor
  • your husband has broken his leg

Kama kwenda chumba cha dharura, Unaweza bado kuwa kusubiri kwa masaa kadhaa kabla ya wewe utaonekana kwa daktari isipokuwa ni dharura kutishia maisha.

If go to an emergency room, you may still have to wait for several hours before you will be seen by a doctor unless it is a life-threatening emergency.

Huduma ya matibabu ya dharura

Emergency medical services

Namba ya simu kumwita kwa usaidizi wa dharura wa kimatibabu ni 911.

The phone number to call for emergency medical help is 911.

Marekani ina mfumo mzuri wa huduma za matibabu. Inajumuisha huduma na mafunzo ya tiba wanaokabili na magari ya kubebea wagonjwa kuchukua watu hospitali. Huduma za matibabu mara nyingi kazi pamoja au idara ya polisi na firefighting. Wakati mwingine ni kukimbia na hospitali au makampuni binafsi.

The USA has a good system of emergency medical services. It includes care by trained medical responders and ambulances to take people to hospitals. Emergency medical services often work with or police and firefighting departments. Sometimes they are run by hospitals or private companies.

Jifunze zaidi

Learn more

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