Ethiopia: Kuelewa wanafunzi wako kutoka Ethiopia na asili yao ya kitamaduni

Kiingereza piaKiingereza hakuna

Waelimishaji wengi kufundisha wanafunzi mbalimbali kuripoti kwamba kupokea habari za utamaduni kutosha juu ya wanafunzi wao. Kama ni kufundisha wanafunzi wa wakimbizi, ni muhimu kuwa na ufahamu wa wageni’ asili. Taarifa hizi ni maana ya kutoa maelezo ya jumla ya ufunguo inaonyesha, ili kuendeleza kitamaduni mikakati ya kufundisha wasikivu katika sawa na wanafunzi wako’ kipekee za kujifunzia.

Many educators teaching diverse students report that they do not receive enough cultural background information on their students. If you are teaching refugee students, it is important to be aware of newcomers’ backgrounds. The information below is meant to provide an overview of key highlights, so you develop culturally responsive teaching strategies that are in tune with your students’ unique learning styles.

Picha na UNHRC
Picha na UNHRC
Photo by UNHRC
Photo by UNHRC

Ramani ya Ethiopia

Ethiopian Map

Lugha

Language

Kiamhari na Kiingereza

Amharic and English

Kufundisha darasani

Teaching in the Classroom

Ethiopia ina mojawapo ya idadi kubwa ya watu hawajui kusoma na kuandika katika ulimwengu (juu ya 60%). Elimu ya msingi (madarasa ya 1 kwa 8) ni bure na katika nadharia lazima. Elimu ya sekondari ni madarasa 9-11. Wanafunzi wengi wa kipato cha chini mapambano kukabiliana na utamaduni katika shule za umma iliyoundwa kwa ajili ya familia ya tabaka la kati. Kama matokeo ya, wanafunzi wengi wanaacha shule.

Ethiopia has one of the highest illiterate populations in the world (over 60%). Primary education (grades 1 to 8) is free and in theory compulsory. Secondary education is grades 9-11. Many low-income students struggle to adapt to the culture in public schools designed for middle-class families. As a result, many students drop out of school.

Wavulana kuwa fursa za elimu zaidi kuliko wasichana. Kuna yafufuka kuenea kwamba wasichana wa kuliuliza chini kuliko wavulana, na kwamba elimu ya wasichana ni uwekezaji maskini. Ubaguzi na unyanyasaji wa kimwili ni baadhi ya changamoto wasichana uso wakati wao kuhudhuria shule. Watoto wengi wa Ethiopia kukosa mfichuo kwa kikundi kazi na uongozi fursa katika mashirika.

Boys have more educational opportunities than girls. There is a widespread stereotype that girls are less competent than boys, and that girls’ education is a poor investment. Discrimination and physical abuse are some of the challenges girls face when they attend school. Many Ethiopian children lack exposure to group work and leadership opportunities in organizational settings.

Kufunga vipindi (Tazama hapa chini, chini ya utamaduni) inaweza kuwa uzoefu wa kimwili na kihisia changamoto kwa wanafunzi.

Fasting periods (see below, under culture) may be a physically and emotionally challenging experience for students.

Ushiriki wa familia/shule

Family/School Engagement

Familia nyingi Ethiopia kuhamia kutoroka umaskini lakini wanajikuta wenye ajira finyu au ajira baada ya kuja Marekani. Wengi kuishia kufanya kazi katika huduma ya mshahara chini (maegesho ya magari, vituo vya gesi, urahisi maduka, migahawa, nk.). Wakimbizi wengi hawajui jinsi ya kupata kiendeshi au kukosekana kwa gari, hivyo usafirishaji kwa matukio ya shule itakuwa changamoto kwa wazazi ambao wangependa kushiriki.

Many Ethiopian families migrate to escape poverty but find themselves underemployed or unemployed after coming to the US. Many end up working in low wage service (parking lots, gas stations, convenience stores, restaurants, etc.). Many refugees do not know how to drive or lack access to a car, so transportation to school events will be a challenge for parents who would like to be involved.

Kwa ujumla, watu kusalimia kila mmoja na kisses anuwai kwenye mashavu yote. Wazee kutibiwa na kuonekana kwa heshima ya juu.

Generally, people greet each other with multiple kisses on both cheeks. The elderly are treated and regarded with high respect.

Ni vizuri kufahamu kwamba Ethiopia ina historia ya mgawanyiko wa kikabila. Aidha, Ethiopia ina matabaka makubwa manne na castes na haishughulikii vyeo vya juu juu, ikifuatiwa na haishughulikii chini-cheo. Uanachama wa matabaka imepangiwa kwa kuzaliwa.

It is good to be aware that Ethiopia has a history of ethnic division. Furthermore, Ethiopia has four major social classes and castes with high-ranking lineages at the top, followed by low-ranking lineages. Caste membership is assigned by birth.

Soka ni shughuli ambayo Waethiopia wengi kushiriki katika kuimarisha hisia zao za mali. Kujiunga na vikundi vya usaidizi wa kijamii na kiuchumi kuitwa Ekub pia huboresha hali ya wakimbizi wa mali.

Soccer is an activity that many Ethiopians participate in to bolster their sense of belonging. Joining social and economic support groups called Ekub can also enhance refugees’ sense of belonging.

Jinsia, Utamaduni, na familia

Gender, Culture, and Family

Waethiopia wengi bado wanaamini kwamba wanawake ni watu. Wanawake ni kawaida chini ya elimu na kuwa chini uhuru wa kiuchumi. Mwanamume kongwe ni mkuu wa kaya na uamuzi Muumba. Kawaida kuna tatu hadi nne vizazi katika kaya moja. Watu kujihusisha na kazi ya kimwili nje ya nyumba na wanawake ni mwenye dhamana ya kazi ya nyumbani. Watoto ni jukumu la kutunza wazazi wao. Wasichana wana majukumu mengi kuliko wavulana.

Many Ethiopians still believe that women are subordinate to men. Women are usually less educated and have less economic freedom. The oldest male is the head of the household and decision maker. There are usually three to four generations in one household. Men engage in physical labor outside the house and women are in charge of household labor. Children are responsible for caring for their parents. Girls have more responsibilities than boys.

Kwa sababu ya tofauti katika majukumu ya kijinsia, marekebisho kwa utamaduni wa Marekani mara nyingi ni vigumu kwa ajili ya familia ya wahamiaji wa Ethiopia. Wakati mwingine waliooana uzoefu mvutano kwa sababu ya jamii ya, kisiasa, na uhuru kiuchumi nafasi kwa wanawake katika Marekani. Katika baadhi ya kesi, mvutano huu imesababisha vurugu ndani au talaka kwa kaya nyingi ya wakimbizi Ethiopia katika Marekani.

Because of the difference in gender roles, adjustment to American culture is often difficult for Ethiopian immigrant families. Sometimes married couples experience tension because of the social, political, and economic freedom granted to women in the US. In some cases, this tension has led to domestic violence or divorce for many Ethiopian refugee households in the US.

Waethiopia lazima daima Nawa mikono yao kabla ya kula tangu chakula chote ni kuliwa kwa mikono kutoka gawize sahani/sinia. Kijadi, wageni kuanzisha kula. Wakati wa kula, ni sahihi kwa kuvuta injera tu kutoka nafasi moja kwa moja mbele yenu. Ni heshima kwa kujihusisha katika mazungumzo wakati wa kula tangu makini kamili kwa chakula ni alijua kama ill-mannered.

Ethiopians must always wash their hands before eating since all food is eaten with the hands from a shared dish/tray. Traditionally, guests initiate eating. While eating, it is proper to pull injera only from the space directly in front of you. It is polite to engage in conversation while eating since paying complete attention to the food is perceived as ill-mannered.

Wakati wa vipindi wa kufunga wa Kikristo (inatofautiana kwa mtu binafsi au Kanisa), bidhaa hakuna mnyama inaweza kuliwa na hakuna chakula au kinywaji unaweza kuliwa kutoka usiku wa manane hadi 3:00PM. Hii ni njia ya kawaida ya kufunga wiki ya, na siku ya Jumamosi na Jumapili bidhaa hakuna mnyama inaweza kuliwa, Ingawa hakuna kizuizi cha muda kwenye mfungo.

During Christian fasting periods (varies by individual or church), no animal products can be eaten and no food or drink can be consumed from midnight until 3:00PM. This is the standard way of fasting during the week, and on Saturday and Sunday no animal products may be consumed, although there is no time restriction on the fast.

Nyenzo za ziada

Additional Resources

RASILIMALI YA BRYCS

BRYCS RESOURCES

DUNIA FACTBOOK

WORLD FACTBOOK

WAKIMBIZI BACKGROUNDERS

REFUGEE BACKGROUNDERS

IRC WAKIMBIZI MWALIMU PAKITI

IRC REFUGEE TEACHER PACKET

WAMAREKANI ETHIOPIA

ETHIOPIAN AMERICANS

AFYA

HEALTH

Shiriki mawazo yako

Share Your Ideas

Kama una maoni au maelezo ya ziada au mawazo kushiriki katika kufundisha wanafunzi Ethiopia, Tafadhali barua pepe: info@usahello.org.

If you have comments or additional information or ideas to share on teaching Ethiopian students, please email: info@usahello.org.

Kuchukua kozi yetu kwa waelimishaji

Take our Course for Educators

Kama utapenda mafunzo zaidi juu ya jinsi ya kuwaelimisha wanafunzi wa wakimbizi na wahamiaji, Tafadhali Fikiria kuwaandikisha katika njia yetu, Kuelimisha wakimbizi na wahamiaji wanafunzi: Kozi ya mtandaoni kwa walimu.

If you would like more training on how to educate refugee and immigrant students, please consider enrolling in our course, Educating Refugee and Immigrant Students: An Online Course for Teachers.

Chapisha taarifa hii kama PDF

Print this Information as a PDF

Unaweza kupakua na chapa hii Maelezo ya mwanafunzi ya Ethiopia kama PDF na kuitunza kama nyenzo katika darasa lako.

You can download and print this Ethiopian learner profile as a PDF and keep it as a resource in your classroom.

Ukurasa huu alimsaidia wewe? Uso Unaocheka Ndio Frown uso La
Asante kwa maoni yako!