Kommunikasie in die VSA

Engels ookgeen Engels

Kommunikasie is hoe ons inligting en deel idees met ander mense. Ons doen dit deur praat, deur te skryf, en selfs met ons hande, gesig, en liggame. In 'n nuwe land, Ons moet leer nuwe maniere van kommunikasie. Hier is 'n paar wenke om jou te help kommunikeer in die VSA.

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and bodies. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

 

 

communication between cultures

communication between cultures

Tydens jou eerste maande in die VSA, Daar sal baie tye wees wanneer jy nie verstaan mense en situasies. Dit is baie moeilik, maar dit is ook normaal. Probeer om nie ontmoedig! Kommunikasie sal met tyd beter raak. Jy sal gewoond raak aan die nuwe kultuur en begin om te verstaan die taal.

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

Taal

Language

Wanneer jy in 'n nuwe land aankom, ken nie die taal maak alles moeilik. Hier is 'n paar nuttige dinge weet oor kommunikasie met Amerikaners.

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

misverstande

Misunderstandings

Gedurende die eerste paar maande is jy in die Verenigde State van Amerika, jy sal waarskynlik verkeerd verstaan ​​baie dinge. Dit is normaal en nie jou skuld nie. Probeer jou beste om positief te wees - as iemand onbeskof lyk of bedoel, Herinner jouself dat dit dalk as gevolg van 'n kulturele verskil. Hulle is 'n slegte of onbeskofte persoon aanvaar nie.

During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

As jy nie iets wat vir jou gesê het verstaan, vra die persoon om te herhaal wat hulle gesê. Of vra hulle om dit weer sê meer eenvoudig. Moenie bang wees om te hou vra nie.

If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.

sensitiewe onderwerpe

Sensitive topics

Baie Amerikaners is sensitief oor sekere vakke. Byvoorbeeld:

Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:

Hulle is dalk “polities korrek.” Om mense regte manier probeer nie om te sê dinge wat 'n bepaalde groep mense sal beledig. Byvoorbeeld, baie Amerikaners duld nie rassistiese of sexist grappe. Dit korrektheid help om 'n inklusiewe samelewing te skep. Maar dit sal probleme veroorsaak as ander is neerhalend.

They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

Die meeste Amerikaners hou nie daarvan om te praat oor hul gewig, hul ouderdom, of hoeveel geld hulle maak. As jy sê iets oor gewig iemand se, hoe oud hulle is, of hoe ryk of arm hulle is, hulle kan ontsteld wees.

Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.

Mense kan ook nie wil hê jy moet vertel waar hulle gaan of waar hulle woon. As jy vra iemand, “Waar gaan jy heen?” hulle mag dink jy het 'n slegte voorneme.

People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.

Daar is 'n paar onderwerpe wat makliker is om oor te praat sonder om 'n kommunikasie probleem. Gemeenskaplike areas oor kulture heen is kinders en sport. As jy 'n harde tyd in gesprek met iemand, praat oor hierdie onderwerpe!

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!

klein praat

Small talk

Die meeste Amerikaners sal praat “klein praat” met jou. Hulle sal vra hoe jy of praat oor die weer. Dit word beskou as hoflik. As iemand sê, “Hoe gaan dit?” die ander persoon sê byna altyd,”goeie,” “fyn,” of “OK,” selfs al is hy of sy hartseer of siek.

Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.

Asseblief en dankie

Please and thank you

In die VSA, mense sê “asseblief” wanneer hulle vra vir iets en “Dankie” wanneer hulle iets ontvang of iemand hulle help. Amerikaners is geneig om ander te bedank selfs vir klein dingetjies. As iemand het 'n deur oop vir jou, dit is beleefd om dankie te sê. As iemand gee jou 'n geskenk, moet jy ook dankie te sê.

In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.

Engels as 'n tweede taal

English as a second language

Leer Engels is een van die belangrikste dinge wat jy kan doen om jou te help aanpas om te lewe in die VSA. As jy nie veel Engels praat, jy kan gratis klasse aanlyn en in jou gemeenskap te vind. Jy kan maniere te vind om leer Afrikaans aanlyn of in jou plaaslike gemeenskap.

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, you can find free classes online and in your community. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

Een van die beste maniere om 'n nuwe taal te leer is om te verdiep jouself in dit en om te luister na dit baie. Probeer om te luister en te oefen Engels soveel as wat jy kan. uitspraak, of korrek te sê dinge, is een van die moeilikste dele van leer 'n nuwe taal. Jou tone en watter woorde jy beklemtoon ook saak. Jy kan gefrustreerd voel omdat jy iets reg sê, maar Amerikaners kan jy nie verstaan. Nie alle Amerikaners gebruik word om buitelandse aksent.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.

Nie-verbale kommunikasie

Nonverbal communication

Wanneer ons in 'n gesprek met ander mense, ons kommunikeer in twee belangrike maniere: mondelings (met behulp van woorde) en nonverbally. Nonverbal kommunikasie beteken die manier waarop ons ons liggaam gebruik om te kommunikeer. Dit sluit in:

When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

  • gesigsuitdrukkings
  • hand gebare
  • oogkontak
  • postuur (hoe ons staan of sit)
  • stemtoon
  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • eye contact
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice

Sommige mense dink nie-verbale kommunikasie is meer belangrik as die werklike woorde wat ons sê. Dit help mense besluit of hulle wil en vertroue ander.

Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.

Verskillende kulture gebruik verskillende tipes van nie-verbale kommunikasie. Hier is 'n paar van die maniere Amerikaners gebruik nie-verbale kommunikasie:

Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:

Oogkontak

Eye contact

Die meeste Amerikaners maak oogkontak tydens belangrik gesprekke. As jy nie maak oogkontak, mense mag dink jy lê of iets is verkeerd. Mense wat direk kyk in jou oë is dikwels beskou as meer betroubaar, intelligente, en soort. As jy kom uit 'n kultuur waar mense nie kyk na mekaar se oë, hierdie dalk baie moeilik wees vir jou om te doen.

Most Americans make eye contact during important conversations. If you do not make eye contact, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. People who look directly into your eyes are often viewed as more trustworthy, intelligent, and kind. If you come from a culture where people do not look into each other’s eyes, this may be very hard for you to do.

Glimlag

Smiling

Amerikaners glimlag baie om beleefd te wees en te wys dat alles goed is. Wanneer jy iemand ontmoet nuwe, hulle verwag dat jy glimlag op hulle.

Americans smile a lot to be polite and to show that everything is okay. When you meet someone new, they expect you to smile at them.

postuur

Posture

As jy regop staan, mense is geneig om jou meer respek gee.

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

raak

Touch

Die meeste Amerikaners skud hande wanneer hulle ontmoet. Soms het mense sal mekaar omhels as hulle reeds ken mekaar. As jy ongemaklik voel skud hande, jy hoef nie te skud hande.

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

ruimte

Space

In die VSA, mense het meer “persoonlike spasie.” Dit beteken as jy praat met iemand, hulle sal waarskynlik staan ​​ten minste 'n voet weg van jou.

In the USA, people have more “personal space.” This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

argumente

Arguments

Mense in die Verenigde State van Amerika word geleer om “staan ​​op” vir hul oortuigings. Dit beteken dat as iemand nie saamstem met jou, hulle mag redeneer met jou te probeer om hul punt te bewys. Dit kan baie ongemaklik wees as jy kom uit 'n kultuur wat waardes “besparing gesig.” In sommige lande, om in 'n argument kan beteken jy gesig verloor.

People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

Amerikaners argumenteer nie uit woede of om te veg, maar om jou te wys waarom hulle glo dat hulle reg is. Redeneer oor die algemeen aanvaar is as deel van die gesprek, tensy jy praat baie hard (skree) of die gebruik van slegte of onbeskof taal. Studente word toegelaat en selfs aangemoedig om te verskil met hul onderwysers. Kinders mag redeneer met hul ouers. Werkers kan nie saamstem met hul base, maar beleefd. soms, veral in die Amerikaanse politiek, mense redeneer so erg dat niks kan gedoen word!

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

As jy ongemaklik voel in 'n argument, dit is okay om te verduidelik dat jy nie gemaklik argument voel. Maar, jy mag nodig wees om te leer om mense wat jy nie eens met hulle te vertel of anders hulle sou kon dink jy saam met wat hulle sê.

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

Humor

Humor

Een deel van kommunikasie wat baie hard kan wees wanneer jy aan te pas by 'n nuwe kultuur is humor. Jy kan 'n grap dat mense regoor nie verstaan ​​nie maak. Of iemand dalk 'n grap wat jy nie verstaan ​​nie maak. Sedert humor is kulturele, soms selfs as jy die grap verstaan, jy kan nie dink dit is snaaks.

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

grappies

Jokes

Baie Amerikaners graag grappe vertel. soms, grappe kan snaaks wees en almal lag. soms, grappe kan offensief wees. Byvoorbeeld, iemand dalk 'n grap vertel op grond van ras of geslag. Hierdie mense en grappies is nie polities korrek! As iemand jou vertel 'n grap dat jy aanstoot, jy kan beleefd sê jy vind dit aanstootlik of minagtende en vra hulle nie om jou te vertel nie meer grappies van daardie soort.

Many Americans like to tell jokes. Sometimes, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. Sometimes, jokes can be offensive. For example, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

satire

Satire

Vryheid van spraak word beskerm deur die Verenigde State Grondwet. As gevolg hiervan, die Amerikaanse media kan maak grappies oor dinge wat mense in ander lande kan nie joke oor. Byvoorbeeld, Daar is 'n paar Amerikaanse koerante wat “grap” koerante - hulle skryf nuus wat satiriese of snaaks, maar nie waar. Byvoorbeeld, 'n Amerikaanse satiriese koerant papier bekend as die ui het 'n storie oor die president van Noord-Korea. Hulle het gesê hy was die mees aantreklike man gestem in die wêreld. Sommige mense in Noord-Korea en China het gedink die storie waar was. Maar die storie was net 'n grap.

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Because of this, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. For example, there are some US newspapers that are “joke” newspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. For example, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

komedies

Comedies

In die VSA, Sommige mense hou daarvan om te kyk na komedies op televisie te kyk. Hulle kan dalk ook graag kyk professionele komediante op TV of in theaters en klubs. soms, Amerikaanse komedies te kyk en komediante kan aanstoot.

In the USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Sometimes, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

Grappe

Pranks

Sommige Amerikaners graag mekaar te mislei. In Amerika, daar is 'n vakansie genoem April Fools’ dag. Dit is op die eerste dag van April. Op hierdie dag, baie mense graag probeer om truuks te speel. Byvoorbeeld, iemand by die werk kan maak dat jy glo iets is waar as dit nie. Mense noem hierdie grappies “grappe” of “trek jou been.”

Some Americans like to trick each other. In America, there is a holiday called April Fools’ Day. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. For example, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokes “pranks” or “pulling your leg.”

Kontrakte en ooreenkomste

Contracts and agreements

In die VSA, geskrewe kontrakte en verbale ooreenkomste is belangrik.

In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

Ooreenkomste is tipies verbale. Byvoorbeeld, iemand kan jou vra om iets te doen en jy sê ja of nee. Dit is 'n ooreenkoms. In Amerika, verbale ooreenkomste is oor die algemeen baie ernstig opgeneem. soms, wanneer jy 'n mondelinge ooreenkoms, jy mag ook die hande te skud. Skud hande is 'n simbool wat jy beide gaan die ooreenkoms na te kom.

Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.

Een probleem met verbale ooreenkomste is dat dit soms mense kan verkeerd. Byvoorbeeld, u kan 'n verbale ooreenkoms maak met iemand wat u aan hulle sal ontmoet by 5 pm daardie dag. maar, miskien misverstaan ​​hulle en het gedink dat jy die volgende dag bedoel.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.

As jy saam iets, Dit is belangrik om die Amerikaners dat jy óf vervul daardie ooreenkoms of dat jy hulle laat weet jy kan die ooreenkoms nie voltooi. Dit is waar, selfs vir iets klein. Byvoorbeeld, As iemand jou vra om middagete te hê en jy sê ja, moet jy óf gaan na middagete of moet jy hulle bel en vertel hulle jy kan nie kom voordat dit tyd vir die middagete.

If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

Kontrakte skriftelike ooreenkomste wat aandui watter twee (of meer) mense stem saam om. Wanneer jy beweeg in 'n woonstel wat jy teken 'n huurkontrak. Wanneer jy 'n werk te begin, jy kan 'n dienskontrak ontvang. As jy 'n motor koop op krediet, jy kan 'n leningsooreenkoms te teken. Al hierdie is kontrakte.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

As jy teken 'n kontrak, jy waarskynlik het 'n wetlike verpligting om die kontrak na te kom. Daarom is dit baie belangrik dat jy dit deeglik deur te lees. Indien die kontrak is in Engels, wil jy dalk om hulp te vra vertaal dit. Vir 'n eenvoudige kontrak, Jy kan 'n vriend vra of jy kan e-pos ons en ons sal probeer om jou te help om die kontrak te verstaan. As dit gaan oor geld, werk, of regsdienste, wil jy dalk 'n professionele vertaler of vra jou caseworker vir advies.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

Dit is veralgemenings oor die Amerikaanse kultuur - nie feite, net idees om jou te help beter verstaan waarom 'n Amerikaanse kan optree 'n manier wat anders is as wat jy gebruik om te. Amerikaanse maniere en kultuur is nie beter of erger as ander maniere nie-net verskillende.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

Leer meer

Learn more

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